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Using the articles from your quantitative paper and qualitative paper create a chart to provide a visual graphic of how the variables or criteria both quantitative and qualitative align with the selected theory in response to the research question. Add two studies using a mixed methods approach. Note quantitative data is generally statistical for these purposes and qualitative will describe what is happening. Select those factors that are relevant using both approaches. Restate research question or establish two questions. Articulate the applicability to the chart.
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Running head: A QUALITATIVE ESSAY
California Southern University
Angeles Martinez
Research Methods in Psychology
PSY 87127-17
March 1, 2019
1
A QUALITATIVE ESSAY
2
Impact of Parenting Style on Child’s Behavior
Determining the link between parenting style and the child’s behavior can be quite
challenging. Determination of the effect of parenting style on a child’s behavior remains a task
because there are many forms of parenting styles and varied types of behavioral outcomes among
children. The association that exists between the parenting style and child’s behavior is narrow
and in many cases are dependent on the timing and the measurement of the actions at hand.
Previously, many studies focused on the impact of parenting style on the emotional development
of the children. The studies had their focus on different parenting styles across cultures.
Interestingly, not much research has been done on the impact of parenting styles on the children’s
behavior. No research has a direct link between the parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative,
permissive and neglectful) on the children’s behavior. The studies that have been carried out
previously had their focus on the other forms of parenting styles except the permissive and
neglectful.
Research Questions
Do parenting styles affect children behaviors and do the behaviors cause children to be placed in
special education classes?
Specific Research Questions
1. How does parenting styles affect children behaviors?
2. How does the behavior cause children to be placed in special education classes?
A QUALITATIVE ESSAY
3
Attachment Theory
The theory that underpins the discussion herein is the Attachment Theory. Notably, it
expounds on crafting a close parent-child relationship that is laced with secure attachment.
Having this leads to positive parenting. It is critical as through it the determination of a child’s
behavioral problems can be established. This theory suggests that there is a critical period, about
0-5 years old when there is a developing attachment. If attachment has not developed then there
can be severe consequences, such as increased aggressive and reduced intelligence (McLeod,
2017).
Annotated Bibliography
Sarwar, S. (2016). Influence of parenting style on children’s behavior. Journal of Education and
Educational Development. 3(2)
This research looked at the influence parenting styles has on children’s behavior. This
author looked at which styles leads the children to be delinquent juveniles and makes
these children low academic achievers. He used in-depth interviews with two mothers of
delinquent children plus secondary data from online libraries and topic books. He used
words like, anger, cursing, beating to define the authoritarian parenting style and words
like, understand discuss and ask to describe authoritative parenting style. He also used
words like neglect, lenient, saying nothing, etc. These words were used for coding once
the interviews were over. He used literature review to define delinquency and to identify
3 parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian and permissive. This paper defines the
different parenting styles in detail. From the findings of this study the authoritarian
parenting style causes children/adolescents to be delinquent since the strictness causes
A QUALITATIVE ESSAY
4
them to rebel. It is also related to low self-confidence and lower level of ability; children
have a difficult time exploring their capabilities and with social skills. Authoritative
parenting style is considered good parenting because parents keep an eye on their
children and try to understand their mindset.
Rodriguez, M.M.D., Donovick, M.R. & Crowley, S.L. (2009). Parenting styles in a cultural
context: observations of “protective parenting” in first-generation Latinos. Family
Process, 48(2).
This study is to understand the findings on past literature about Latino’s parenting styles.
They use Diana Baumrind research on three primary parenting styles; authoritarian,
authoritative and permissive, and Maccoby and Martin (1983) fourth parenting style;
neglectful. This study used direct observations of the parents and children’s behaviors.
They also studied the influence of child and parent gender on different dimensions:
responsiveness (warmth), demandingness (parental control) and autonomy granting. The
previous literature on Latino’s parenting styles is inconsistent and sparse; some
researchers have claimed that Latino parents are permissive; others claim they are
authoritative; the authors decided to use dimensions instead. Parenting dimensions were
examined calculating descriptive statistics of dimension for each parent. Latino parents
scored high on warmth and demandingness and medium to low on autonomy. The
researchers also found that the four traditional parenting styles did not capture Latino’s
parenting styles well. Most of the parents (61%) were protective, 31% were authoritative;
these traditional parenting styles only accounted for one-third of the Latino families.
A QUALITATIVE ESSAY
5
Pinquart, M. & Kauser, R. (2018). Do the associations of parenting styles with behavior
problems and academic achievement vary by culture? Results from a meta-analysis.
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 24(1).
The study aimed to test if there is a link between the parenting styles, the internal
problems, the external issues and the differences in academic achievements that happen
in different ethnic groups in the western nations. The other scope of the study included
diverse regions in the world, and by the degree of collectivism. Besides, the research
method used in this case is a systematic search. The technique was made possible by the
electronic databases and a cross-referencing of 428 studies. The outcome of the
investigation pointed to more ethnic and regional similarities than the differences noted.
There was a strong link between authoritative parenting and academic achievement in the
non-Hispanics, White families than Asian minorities according to Pinquart and Kauser
(2018). In different countries, the link between authoritarian parenting and academic
achievement was not negative among the Hispanics families in comparison to the nonHispanics and the Whites. On the authoritative parenting style, there was at least a single
positive child outcome while the authoritarian parenting style showed an adverse result.
The nations that had higher individualism scores had a lower link with the authoritarian
parenting style. The research recommends that parents across the world behave
authoritatively even though authoritarian and permissive parenting is also accepted within
particular cultural contexts.
Guilamo-Ramos, V., Dittus, P., Jaccard, J. Johansson, M., Bouris, A. & Acosta, N. (2007).
Parenting practices among Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers. National Association of
Social Workers.
A QUALITATIVE ESSAY
6
Latino parenting in an urban context is what this study is about; it was conducted using
focus groups made up of Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers and adolescents’ pairs in
New York City Bronx borough. Latino parenting practices were used along with cultural
components: familismo, respeto, personalismo and simpatia. The focus groups had five
essential parenting practices: 1. making sure there was close monitoring of the children,
2. keeping supportive relationships characterized by high-levels of parent-adolescent
sharing and interaction, 3. explaining to the adolescents the parents’ actions and
decisions, 4. improving and building relationships, 5. different parenting practices based
on the adolescents’ gender. This study found that mothers believed that respeto
encompasses family authority and obedience from the children to the adults stresses
proper conduct. Mother and children both agree that a level of control was necessary so
that the children could benefit from behavior limits. Mothers insisted that parental control
must be rational and consistent; they felt that it was important to understand their children
and to make sure they knew the expectations and rules. All the mothers agree that
parenting their children in a low-income urban neighborhood was hard, but they claimed
that they can keep their children away from harm with their parenting strategies. The
limitations to this study are that fathers were not involved; and, this was based on what
the mothers and adolescents said on interviews.
Discussion
Through the different studies that have been carried out, it emerges that parenting styles
affect children behaviors. Nonetheless, there is no pointer showing that the behavior can cause
children to be placed in special education classes. The study done by Sarwar (2016) showed that
A QUALITATIVE ESSAY
7
the authoritarian parenting style was responsible for rebellious children behavior and would lead
to problematic behavior given the more than the required power that is exercised on the children
by the parents. Additionally, the authoritative parenting style is also found to be a usual
parenting style. The study also showed that parents who spend much time with their children end
up raising those who have low chances of developing delinquent behavior. Spending more time
implies that there is a reduction in problematic behaviors.
The study done by Rodriguez, Donovick & Crowley (2009) noted that most of the Latino
parents were protective. Even though the mothers and the fathers had similar parenting styles, the
expectations were different for the male and female children. The Attachment theory underpins
the findings. According to the theory, there is a need to come up with a close parent-child
relationship that is laced with secure attachment. Having this leads to positive parenting. It is
critical as through it the determination of a child’s behavioral problems can be established.
Notably, it is recommended that parents across the world behave authoritatively even though
authoritarian and permissive parenting is also accepted within specific cultural contexts.
Conclusion
In summary, the study shows that different parenting styles affect children’s behaviors.
For instance, the authoritarian parenting style was responsible for rebellious children behavior
and would lead to problematic behavior given the more than the required power that is exercised
on the children by the parents. Additionally, the authoritative parenting style is also found to be a
usual parenting style. However, there is no pointer showing that the behavior can cause children
to be placed in special education classes.
A QUALITATIVE ESSAY
8
Appendix I
Figure 1 shows a graph of parenting styles as the independent variable against the number
of positive and negative relationships as the dependent variable. Therefore, the outcome proves
that there is a relationship between parenting styles and the behavior.
Parenting Styles and Behavior Association
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Authoritarian
Permissive
Neglectiful
-2
Behavior
Figure 1
References
Authoritative
A QUALITATIVE ESSAY
9
Guilamo-Ramos, V., Dittus, P., Jaccard, J. Johansson, M., Bouris, A. & Acosta, N. (2007).
Parenting practices among Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers. National Association of
Social Workers. Retrieved from www.calsouthern.edu
McLeod, S. (2017). Attachment theory. Retrieved from https://www.simplypsychology.org/
Pinquart, M. & Kauser, R. (2018). Do the associations of parenting styles with behavior
problems and academic achievement vary by culture? Results from a meta-analysis.
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 24(1). Retrieved from
www.calsouthern.edu
Rodriguez, M.M.D., Donovick, M.R. & Crowley, S.L. (2009). Parenting styles in a cultural
context: observations of “protective parenting” in first-generation Latinos. Family
Process, 48(2). Retrieved from www.calsouthern.edu
Sarwar, S. (2016). Influence of parenting style on children’s behavior. Journal of Education and
Educational Development. 3(2). Retrieved from www.calsouthern.edu
Running head: QUANTITATIVE STUDIES
California Southern University
Angeles Martinez
Research Methods in Psychology
PSY 87127-13
February 21, 2019
1
QUANTITATIVE STUDIES
2
Introduction
Attempting to examine the effect of parenting practices on the child’s behaviour and the
outcome remains to be a great challenge. This is because there are several forms of parenting
behaviours and parenting styles as well as different kinds of child behavioural outcomes. The
link that exists between the parenting practices and child behaviour is narrow and largely depend
on the timing and the measurement of the behaviors at hand. A case in point is that a study of
adolescents on their parents’ psychological control or the fact that the parents attempt to control
the emotions and the beliefs of the children. The outcome of the research showed that child
behaviour was a strong predictor of the changes in parental psychological control as compared to
the parental behaviour in regards to the changes in behaviours of adolescents. Given that the
relation is multidirectional, finding out the effect of parenting practices over the child
behavioural outcomes end up being complicated.
Different forms of parenting results in varied social environments where the children live
within. Most of the studies that conducted have focused so much on the effect of parenting style
on the emotional development of the children as well as different forms of parenting across
cultures and their effect on child development. Conversely, there is no much research that has
been carried out on the impact of parenting style on children’s behavioural problems. No
research has had a direct link between the parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative,
permissive and neglectful) on the children’s behavioural problems (Pinquart & Kauser, 2018).
Those who have attempted have had their focus on the other forms of parenting style except
permissive and neglectful parenting styles. This study focuses on the effect of parenting style on
children’s behavioural problems. From this research, it was established that there was no
QUANTITATIVE STUDIES
3
consistency in the behaviour problems between the different parenting groups. Parenting styles
could not also be directly linked to behavioural problems.
Hypothesis
Guided by the literature on the topic, the focus of the researcher was to test two essential
hypotheses: H1: There is a positive correlation between parental behaviour control and children’s
behavioural problems. H2: There is consistency in the parenting style linked to the child’s
behavioral problems. The research questions for this study are: How does parenting style affect
children’s behavioural problems? What is the most frequent parenting style that is least
associated with behavioral problems? Is the consistency in the parenting style linked to the
child’s behavioural problems?
Attachment Theory
The theory for this discussion is the Attachment Theory. The theory expounds on crafting a
close parent-child relationship that is laced with secure attachment; having this leads to positive
parenting. It is critical as through it the determination of child’s behavioral problems can be
established.
Background of the Problem
Worldwide, the parenting practices have current primary roles, which include ensuring
that children are safe and healthy, preparation of the children to be productive adults and passing
of cultural values to the children. The roles mean that every parent must up their game and
parenting is no small feat. For a child to be a healthy, competent and productive adult, several
QUANTITATIVE STUDIES
4
environmental and biological factors play a serious role (Huang et al., 2018). The impact on
child outcomes is many while most of the literature shows that parenting practices are significant
in the equation.
Additionally, the degree to which parenting practices determine the behavioural
development in children is a complicated issue. At the time, it may remain quite a challenge to
answer it with certainty; one can be assured that parents are focal to the behavioural outcomes of
their children. Accordingly, research has shown that there is a progressive connection between
parenting and child behavioural adjustment. How a parent displays affection to the child and
exerts behavioural and psychological control on the child has a direct link and connection to the
internalising and externalising behaviours (Choe, Olson & Sameroff, 2013). The internalisation
or the emotional and behaviour problems that are evident in the children usually refer to the
anxiety and depression (O’Neill & Murray, 2016). On the other hand, externalisation or
disruptive behaviour problems usually include different attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders
and conduct issues. However, they are just a few behavioural problems which partly are shaped
by specific parenting styles.
Statement of the Problem
The different forms of parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and
neglectful were found to be vital in defining the behaviour of the parents towards their children.
Besides, the interaction between the parents and the children are linked with the cultural
environments. Culture affects most of the family life including how parents socialize with their
children. Usually, the actions and behaviours that are typical and are evident in one culture may
end up being considered abnormal in another culture. Culture can be described in different ways,
QUANTITATIVE STUDIES
5
and one such way is through dividing it into individualistic and collectivist forms. Usually,
within the same parenting style there are common behaviours. However, there are certain
parenting behaviours that are evident across cultures. However, when parenting behaviours are
the same across different cultures, the outcomes of the child’s development are still different.
Middle Eastern children are used to parents that are controlling them and being firm, a trait that
is different from other cultures (Zhang, 2015); however, when the parents of African American
children asserted the same, they tend to show higher depression due to so much control. This can
be a sign that child development outcome is largely as a result of children parenting; it means
that individuals are not fully grasping the effect that parenting has on children across cultures.
There is a need to comprehend the role that culture plays in parenting and the interaction that
exist between the parenting style and culture.
Discussion
Through the different studies that have been carried out, it emerges that there are no
significant differences between the parenting style and the behavioural problems. This is to infer
that the behavioural issues emerged and occurred across the different forms of parenting styles. It
only emerged that physical discipline of the children increases the risks of externalising their
problems, an aspect that affirms the Attachment Theory. It is also found that the maternal
reasoning and the reminding of rules, as well as inductive discipline, have less association with
fewer child externalising problems (Braz et al., 2015; Choe, Olson & Sameroff, 2013). From the
outcome, it emerged that less inductive and more physical discipline is a predictor of the
different externalising problems. From the discussions, there is also an indication that the
parenting styles have so much effect on the mediation of the relationship between attachment and
QUANTITATIVE STUDIES
6
anxiety. Anxiety is a determinant of behavioural problems in children, as emotions are critical
part of as noted in the Attachment Theory (O’Neill & Murray, 2016).
Figure 1 shows a graph of parenting styles as the independent variable against the number
of positive and negative relationships as the dependent variable. Therefore, the hypothesis tested
positive which proves that there is a …
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