write a public health research paper about syphilis. (I upload the requirement and sample,and there is a ppt that I made before. you can check if it’s help) requirement:Public Health Problem :Description and analysis of the public health problem.•#1: why is the problem in the society?•#2: how this happened, why this happened etc.•#3: What are the risks for the community in the future•#4: What are/were the etiological risk factors?(What are the prerequisites for the disease?)For example, etiological risk factors for type II diabetes are: obesity, poor diet, lack of exercise, & stress.How to Solve the Public Health Problem :Discussion of how the public health problem can be or was solved.•#1: description of strategies, PH intervention programs, PH policy etc.Public Health in the Future :Discuss how to prevent the public health problem.•#1: conclusion with justification from research literature what should be done to PREVENT the PH problem.•#2: comparison with other nations, or other situations, or with the history etc. or you may add your own experience with the problem and how to prevent it#3: your OPINION on the prevention of this specific PH problem in the futureformat:•Separate Cover Page with paper title, your name, ID, class, year, your instructor’s name•Length min. 2& 2/3 pages text, 1/3 page references, & 1 page cover for a total of 4 pages (single spaced)•Organize the paper with three subject headings:Public health problem, How to solve the PH problem, & Public Health in the futureCorrect spelling and grammar, 12 pt. font, Times New Roman, with 1 to 1.25 inch margins on each side, top and bottomrequirement:Public Health Problem :Description and analysis of the public health problem.•#1: why is the problem in the society?•#2: how this happened, why this happened etc.•#3: What are the risks for the community in the future•#4: What are/were the etiological risk factors?(What are the prerequisites for the disease?)For example, etiological risk factors for type II diabetes are: obesity, poor diet, lack of exercise, & stress.How to Solve the Public Health Problem :Discussion of how the public health problem can be or was solved.•#1: description of strategies, PH intervention programs, PH policy etc.Public Health in the Future :Discuss how to prevent the public health problem.•#1: conclusion with justification from research literature what should be done to PREVENT the PH problem.•#2: comparison with other nations, or other situations, or with the history etc. or you may add your own experience with the problem and how to prevent it#3: your OPINION on the prevention of this specific PH problem in the futureformat:•Separate Cover Page with paper title, your name, ID, class, year, your instructor’s name•Length min. 2& 2/3 pages text, 1/3 page references, & 1 page cover for a total of 4 pages (single spaced)•Organize the paper with three subject headings:Public health problem, How to solve the PH problem, & Public Health in the futureCorrect spelling and grammar, 12 pt. font, Times New Roman, with 1 to 1.25 inch margins on each side, top and bottom
Unformatted Attachment Preview
Tips for the Public
Health Topic Paper
By Jaime Allgood, M.A.
(on page 16 of the class syllabus)
Public Health Problem
How to Solve the Public Health
• Public Health in the Future
Paper Format (5 points)
• Separate Cover Page with paper title, your name,
ID, class, year, your instructor’s name
• Length min. 2& 2/3 pages text, 1/3 page
references, & 1 page cover for a total of 4 pages
• Organize the paper with three subject headings:
Public health problem, How to solve the PH
problem, & Public Health in the future
• Correct spelling and grammar, 12 pt. font, Times
New Roman, with 1 to 1.25 inch margins on each
side, top and bottom
References (10 points)
• 5 references minimum
• 3 references must be scholarly sources from peer
reviewed journal articles (Ex. Am. J. of Pub.
Health, JAMA, Environmental Science & Tech.)
• PubMed is a search engine for peer-reviewed
journal articles (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed)
• Additional references* must be from reliable
sources (Ex. CDC, NIH, American Diabetes Assoc.)
* these are not considered scholarly sources
• Limit on quotes: one small sentence
• Consult sources and then incorporate
what has been learned into the paper
using your own words
• Use in-text citations and follow AMA⁴
http://library.nymc.edu/informatics/amastyle.cfm or APA
format (Author’s Last Name, Year)
Dodson et al. (2012) found significant concentrations of flame
retardants in Northern California homes; and these chemicals
may impact health which means that further investigation of
the health consequences of these chemicals is warranted.
References Page Citation
Dodson, R.E., Perovich, L.J., Covaci, A., Van den Eede,
N., Ionas, A.C., Dirtu, A.C., Brody, J.G., & Rudel, R.A.
(2012). After the PBDE Phase-Out: A Broad Suite of
Flame Retardants in Repeat House Dust Samples from
California. Environmental Science & Technology. 46:
• APA Style
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of
article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number),
• AMA Style (http://www.wrt.tcu.edu/files/AMA.pdf)
4. Rainier S, Thomas D, Tokarz D, et al. Myofibrillogenesis
regulator 1 gene mutations cause paroxysmaldystonic
choreoathetosis. Arch Neurol. 2004; 61(7):1025-1029.
Public Health Problem (20 points)
Description and analysis of the public health problem.
• #1: why is the problem in the society?
• #2: how this happened, why this happened etc.
• #3: What are the risks for the community in the
• #4: What are/were the etiological risk factors?
(What are the prerequisites for the disease?)
For example, etiological risk factors for type II diabetes
are: obesity, poor diet, lack of exercise, & stress.
How to Solve the Public Health
Problem (20 points)
Discussion of how the public health problem can be
or was solved.
• #1: description of strategies, PH intervention
programs, PH policy etc.
• #2: Add examples from other cultures, countries/
or from history of how the problem or one similar
was solved to strengthen your discussion
Public Health in the Future (20 points)
Discuss how to prevent the public health problem.
• #1: conclusion with justification from research
literature what should be done to PREVENT the
• #2: comparison with other nations, or other
situations, or with the history etc. or you may add
your own experience with the problem and how
to prevent it
• #3: your OPINION on the prevention of this
specific PH problem in the future
SYPHILIS AND PUBLIC HEALTH
1. Public Health Problem
The problem exists in society
➢ Men account for the largest prevalence
Men who have sex with men – 52% of all cases
Women account for 12% of total cases.
1% of tested pregnant women.
➢ No need for hospitalization.
Injection with penicillin required
One injected required if infected for less than one year.
More than one injections if infected for more than one year.
1. Public Health Problem Cont.
How disease happens
➢ Direct contact with a syphilis sore during sexual contact.
➢ Direct contact unprotected contact with active lesion.
➢ Syphilis sore is caused by a bacterium called Treponema
Where disease occurs
➢ Disease occurs among all sexually active individuals
➢ Occurs in all parts of the world
1. Public Health Problem cont.
Future risk for the community
➢ Same sex marriage
➢ Sharing of sex toys
➢ Men who have sex with men
➢ People who have unprotected sex
➢ People infected with HIV
➢ People with multiple partners
2. How to Solve the Problem
➢ Better awareness campaigns
➢ Use condoms
➢ Abstain or be monogamous
➢ Need to understand who is more at risk
➢ Keeping shared utilities such as toilets tidy
➢ Do not share sex toys
2. How to solve the problem cont.
Historical Example: 16th Century Europe
➢ Many cases were discovered
➢ First diagnosed with gonorrhea
➢ Authorities were concerned about the rise of syphilis and
decided to control prostitution; brothels and common
bathhouses were also closed.
Historical Example: US Marine Hospital
➢ John Mahoney discovered penicillin in 1943
➢ Penicillin was effective cure
3. Public Health in the Future
What should we do, according to literature?
➢ People should abstain from sex or be in monogamous
➢ People should avoid using recreational drugs
➢ People should use new latex conditions
➢ People should keep shared utilities (eg toilets) tidy.
3. Public Health in the Future
Understand the connection between same sex
marriage and syphilis pandemic could help reduce
In my opinion, creating awareness on the
importance of the use of condoms among sexually
active people could prevent the spread of the disease
Da Ros, C. T., & da Silva Schmitt, C. (2008). Global
epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases. Asian journal
of andrology, 10(1), 110-114.
Frith, J. (2012). Syphilis-its early history and treatment until
penicillin, and the debate on its origins. Journal of Military
and veterans Health, 20(4), 49.
Golden, M. R., Marra, C. M., & Holmes, K. K. (2003). Update
on syphilis: resurgence of an old problem. Jama, 290(11),
Wendel Jr, G. D., Sheffield, J. S., Hollier, L. M., Hill, J. B.,
Ramsey, P. S., & Sánchez, P. J. (2002). Treatment of syphilis
in pregnancy and prevention of congenital syphilis. Clinical
Infectious Diseases, 35(Supplement_2), S200-S209.
Example Research Paper
PH 1 Spring 2016
Dr. Zuzana Bic
Melissa Matlock 3/26/2016 11:58 PM
Comment : Stuff to notice:
1)Font choice, page limits, and reference
guidelines are all followed
2)No use of quotes. It is minus 10 points
for every use of quotes! If you use 5
quotes, its minus 50 points
3) Turnitin rules are very strict. Any
research paper published in peer review
journals – is a creative work
from researchers, papers with slight
similarities in writing would be not
accepted. You can refer in your text to
other articles but you need to use your
own words in describing it. You can’t
use… According…. and than copy and
paste sentences!!! Also, to decrease match
% points, read an article, close your
article/put it away, and type how you
would explain it. See page 7 in the
syllabus for more information.
4)Make it easy for the graders, use the
key words like “in my opinion,” “risk
factors,” “risk in the future,” etc. It helps
us know when reading that you hit all the
Public Health Problem
Coccidioidomycosis, also known as Valley Fever, is a reemerging infectious
disease that is endemic to the southwest United States (California, Arizona, Utah, Texas,
Nevada, and New Mexico), Mexico, Central America, and South America . Disease
infection results from inhaling the spores from soil fungus Coccidioides immitis or
Coccidioides posadasii . The two fungi are located in separate regional locations,
however, studies have shown that they are relatively identical and manifest the disease in
the same way. Calling home in arid, desert areas, Coccidioidomycosis spores are found in
lower elevations, 4 inches or more under sandy soil. They are endemic in areas with less
than 20 inches of rain per year . The most common opportunity to become infected is
when the soil is disrupted by construction, entertainment activities, or environmental
factors like earthquakes, landslides, and dust storms .
40% of the infected population is asymptomatic or they receive mild, flu-like,
symptoms that resolve without the use of medication . However, for those that develop
a severe infection, such as pulmonary disease and community-acquired pneumonia,
hospitalization may be required . Coccidioidomycosis infection can also spread to the
central nervous system .
The first patients suffering from Coccidioidomycosis were described over a
hundred years ago. The patients had travelled through the San Joaquin Valley, an
endemic area, and they were suspected of contracting San Joaquin fever . It was not
until 1936 that the disease was discovered to be due to a fungus. At the time, central
California had the highest prevalence of cases .
In the 1950s and 1960s, researchers attempted to understand
Coccidioidomycosis’ desert habitat, but once a new antifungal drug, Amphotericin B,
was introduced in the 1950s, there was a lack of demand for drugs and information about
the disease. Since then, the development of new drugs has been slow, with only 5
introduced to the industry since .
There have been several massive outbreaks of this disease in the last two
decades. In 1977, a massive dust storm, covering 90,000 km2, originated in Bakersfield
and brought the disease to Sacramento, where 115 new cases were diagnosed . In
January 1994, the 6.7 Northridge Earthquake in California disturbed the soil and as a
result of the magnitude, aftershocks, and subsequent landslides, Coccidioidomycosis
fungi became aerosolized and dispersed . 203 cases were identified in Ventura County,
but Coccidioidomycosis was not the original diagnosis .
Data on Coccidioidomycosis is limited due to varieties in state reporting, testing
practices, and misunderstanding of the disease . A general conclusion is that 10-50%
of those living in endemic areas have been exposed to some form of the disease and each
year, approximately 150,000 new cases will occur in the United States . In 2010,
Arizona and California were the two states with the highest incidence of
Coccidioidomycosis, with 186 new cases per 100,000 population in Arizona and 11.5
new cases per 100,000 in California . From 2000-2011, there were 25,217
hospitalizations for 15,747 patients in California . Many patients were readmitted
because they relapsed at least once after their medication prescription ended. This totaled
over $2 billion in hospital bills .
Over the years, the highest communities at risk have been men, people over the
age of 65, Hispanics, Filipinos, Native Americans, pregnant women, and those with
Melissa Matlock 3/26/2016 11:45 PM
Comment : How this happens
Melissa Matlock 3/26/2016 11:44 PM
Comment : Why this is a problem in
Melissa Matlock 3/26/2016 11:45 PM
Comment : Etiological factors
immunosuppressive conditions, such as HIV. However, the demographic risks could be
related to profession or location of these communities relative to endemic regions.
Today, the disease is seen as an unknown disease, although cases and treatment
have been around for years. However, the reemergence of this disease is thought to be
due to migration into endemic areas that historically had been sparsely populated, but
now, house big industrial cities and residential communities. The risk of this disease in
the United States is predicted to increase in the future due to climate change, increase in
travellers, and construction activities.
How to Solve the Public Health Problem
Coccidioidomycosis does not contribute to an overall high number of deaths on
the global scale, but there is so much unknown and Coccidioidomycosis is often
misrepresented in the diagnosis of the disease. In an epidemiological study on
Coccidioidomycosis, several conditions were represented on death records, indicating a
high co-morbidity and co-mortality rate . Several coexisting conditions were
vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, HIV infection,
tuberculosis, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, meningitis, and
non-Hodgkin lymphoma . In addition, many clinicians will also diagnose a patient
with pneumonia and prescribe medication, when the true cause of the illness could be
related to Coccidioidomycosis. Since getting sick involved breathing in spores, anyone
travelling through the area can get exposed and then subsequently infected. There have
been several cases discovered in Australia after individuals travelled along the coast of
There is also an increased risk of complications and death in those that have
immunosuppression, diabetes, men over 65 years old, men, people of African, Native
American, or Filipino descent, pregnant women, and those with preexisting
cardiopulmonary disease . In addition, in the highly mobile world, travellers to
endemic regions may return home and develop the disease 1-4 weeks after exposure. The
homelands of the travellers may not know how to treat the disease properly and may
inaccurately diagnosis the disease as pneumonia or pulmonary infections. Treatment may
also be limited and not well understood in these regions.
Disasters and climate change are environmental risk factors whose future effects
on Coccidioidomycosis is relatively unknown. This can also increase exposure to
travellers in endemic regions, with the potential of Coccidioidomycosis to spread to nonendemic regions and could result in huge outbreaks. Especially in the face of disease
spread through dust storms and air quality issues, environmental factors related to
Coccidioidomycosis should be considered. The unknown risk of Coccidioidomycosis, the
longevity of infection, and the lack of proper diagnosis are issues that need to be
researched and solved before Valley Fever can be eradicated. Overall, it is important to
document adequate travel history and understand the nature of the disease in patients that
show signs of pneumonia and meningitis .
There are also huge financial costs associated with Coccidioidomycosis. One patient
can spend between $5000- $20,000 a year in hospital bills . Alone, this is a huge
burden to the health care system, but other costs, like missing work and at-home care, has
not been calculated. In my opinion, the findings from this type of analysis could lead to
more funding in more effective anti-viral medication.
Public Health in the Future
Melissa Matlock 3/26/2016 11:47 PM
Comment : Risks in the future
Melissa Matlock 3/26/2016 11:48 PM
Comment : Example country
Melissa Matlock 3/26/2016 11:49 PM
Comment : How problem needs to be
Coccidioidomycosis is a disease with a large amount of knowledge yet to be
researched. Throughout the review of various research studies, several themes emerged.
Investigation is needed to understand the general exposure risks and why one person may
be symptomatic, but the general population is asymptomatic. Research can be done at the
molecular level to understand why some medications work and why there is a high
relapse rate of the disease . Also, health disparities and exposure could yield results
that could be beneficial to educating the public living in endemic areas about the disease.
Arizona has been focusing on educating their health practitioners, so they can be aware of
the disease and look out for early symptoms to catch the disease before it moves to an
Several studies have indicated that incidence of Coccidioidomycosis has been
increasing, but the reason is unknown. Many researchers believe this could be due to
climate related factors . Understanding the connection between outbreaks and climate
factors on a temporal scale could help address the potential burden of this disease in the
face of climate change. In my opinion, developing a predictive model using climate
factors to estimate exposure and incidence could help prevent the disease.
 Huang JY, Bristow B, Shafir S, and Sorvillo F. Coccidioidomycosis-associated
Deaths, United States, 1990-2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(11):1723-8.
 Kim MM, Blair JE, Carey EJ, Wu Q, and Smilack JD. Coccidioidal pneumonia,
Phoenix, Arizona, USA, 2000-2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(3):397-401.
 Sondermeyer G, Lee L, Gilliss D, Tabnak F, and Vugia D. Coccidioidomycosisassociated hospitalizations, California, USA, 2000-2011. Emerg Infect Dis.
 Galgiani JN. Coccidioidomycosis: a regional disease of national importance.
Rethinking approaches for control. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130(4 Pt 1):293-300.
 Benedict K, and Park BJ. Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters. Emerg
Infect Dis. 2014;20(3):349-55. doi:10.3201/eid2003.131230.
 Subedi S, Broom J, Caffery M, Bint M, and Sowden D. Coccidioidomycosis in
returned Australian travellers. Intern Med J. 2012;42(8):940-3. doi:10.1111/j.14455994.2012.02855.x.
 Chang DC, Anderson S, Wannemuehler K, Engelthaler DM, Erhart L, Sunenshine
RH, Burwell LA, and Park BJ. Testing for coccidioidomycosis among patients with
community-acquired pneumonia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14(7):1053-9.
Melissa Matlock 3/26/2016 11:50 PM
Comment : Conclusion from literature
Melissa Matlock 3/26/2016 11:50 PM
Comment : How its being solved
Melissa Matlock 3/26/2016 11:51 PM
Comment : Opinion statement
THE NATURAL CURE FOR THE COMMON COLD
Public Health Topic:
Public Health 1
THE NATURAL CURE FOR THE COMMON COLD
Public Health Problem
The common cold is classified through symptoms of sneezing, coughing, and a
soar throat and is an illness that is experienced by most people several times over their
life course. This public health problem dates back as far as the Ebers papyrus the oldest
known medical text. As soon as humans began living in large families and village like
communities, the cold spread more quickly. (Atzl, Helms, 2009). The reason it happened
is because once humans were in close contact with one another sharing aerosol and
physical touch, the viruses were able to spread quickly and infect the population on a
large scale. The common cold is a problem in society for five main reasons. First, there is
no cure. Second, in an average person’s lifetime, they will obtain at least 50 colds
(Common Cold, 2012). This is critical as it highlights the frequency society experiences
the cold, as well as being placed at risk for future health problems. Third, each year the
common cold accounts for 40% of the time off work and 30% of the time off school.
(Worall, 2007). This imposes an issue in society as work missed is lost money, which
could result in the inability for individuals to pay their bills/mortgage, while missed
school is a great concern for not only parents who may be forced to miss work to tend to
their children, but also the public education system. Fourth, when a person comes down
with a cold, they feel awful and in order to minimize thei …
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