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Review the Asian American Brief Historical Chronology (on iLearn and attached here) and Ancheta Chapters Intro, 1, 4 (can also draw on Chpt. 3 though haven’t covered yet), and/or immigration/migration readings; 1. choose one historical event that is, in your view, the most serious violation of constitutional rights that should have protected Asian Americans from legal and political harm, but did NOT;2. identify the constitutional right or combination of rights involved, specifying their source in the Amendments to the US Constitution, and;3. explain how those constitutional rights were denied or ignored resulting in harm to the Asian ethnic group or groups affected.What I’m Looking For, 3 strong paragraphsParagraph 1: Clear statement up front of your key response (the historical event and why you see it as the most serious violation). Paragraph break!Paragraph 2: Constitutional rights or combination of rights involved, specifying source in the constitution and/or Amendments to the Constitution, explaining how those rights were denied or ignored and:Paragraph 3: More specifically explain how violation of right(s) resulted in hardship to the Asian ethnic group or groups affected (back up with cited sources, Ancheta and/or your own research).Cite your sources with (Author Last Name Year, Page No.) at the end of your sentences. Any statement that is not your own personal opinion MUST be cited. For example:According to Angelo Ancheta xxxx “xxxx” (Ancheta 2006, 4). If citing someone other than Ancheta then use their last name, date of publication, and include page number when directly quoting. NO MORE THAN 1 DIRECT QUOTE PERMITTED.450 words maximum, 350 words minimum, online text only. Yes, you read correctly, 450 words max! Stay focused and do not use up word count with things like your name, title, date, or repeating the question — these are fillers and should be avoided!

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Asian Exclusion: Brief Historical Notes
1500s through the 1700s – Filipino mariners reached Mexico
and the California coast aboard Spanish galleons built and
equipped in the Manila region for global exploration and trade.
Present-day Americans of Filipino and Chinese descent in the
Louisiana and Gulf Coast area trace their earliest immigrant
heritage back to Manila Galleon seafarers.
1587 – “Luzones Indios”, natives of the Philippines, were among
the expeditionary force set ashore at Morro Bay, California on
October 18, 1587. They were crew of the Nuestra Senora de
Esperanza under Capt. Pedro de Unamuno.
1763 – “Manilamen”, escaped galleon crew, establish the village
of St. Malo on Lake Borgne near New Orleans as the earliest
known settlement by Filipinos in North America.
1781 – Antonio Miranda, a Filipino member of Spanish
expeditionary force exploring California from Mexico, was among
the party that established the Pueblo de Nuestra Senora de los
Angeles, the City of Los Angeles.
1814 – Filipinos fought under pirate/privateer Jean Lafitte with
U.S. forces at the Battle of New Orleans.
1830s – Chinese began working in small numbers on Americanowned sugar plantations in Hawaii. Chinese sailors and peddlers
were noticed in New York.
1848 – The traditional reference date for the arrival of the first
officially recorded Chinese immigrants at the start of the
California Gold Rush.
1850 – The Anti-Foreign Miner’s License law established a tax
that was selectively enforced against Chinese goldminers.
1852 – Chinese were brought to Hawaii in large numbers as fieldworkers on American- owned sugar plantations.
1854 – People v. Hall: the California Supreme Court decided that
Chinese could not testify against any “white man”, even if the
Chinese were victims or witnesses to serious crimes, i.e.,
murder, arson or robbery.
1854 -The original International Hotel was built on Jackson
1858 – California passed an anti-Chinese and anti-“Mongolian”
immigration law that was a violation of Congressional powers
under the U.S. Constitution but was briefly enforced against
Asians. (“Mongolian” was a generic reference to Asians
commonly used in laws and political discussion through the 19th
and early 20th centuries which was then eventually replaced by
the use of the term “oriental”.)
1865 – The Central Pacific Railroad Co. began recruitment of
Chinese laborers, called “coolies” by whites. An estimated
12,000 to 15,000 Chinese laborers built the western half of the
Transcontinental Railway, over and through the Sierra and
Rocky Mountains, during a four year period.
1867 – Two thousand Chinese railroad workers struck for two
weeks in protest against extremely harsh working conditions.
1868 – Japanese were brought over as contract laborers to
Hawaii. The U.S. and China signed the Burlingame Treaty which
guaranteed mutual free emigration and equal treatment for the
people of each signator nation.
1870 – California passed a law to stop importation of Mongolian,
Chinese and Japanese, “prostitutes”, though many of the women
were legitimate wives or relatives of legal U.S. residents.
Mongolians were categorically denied naturalization rights as
“unassimilable” and “undesirable” immigrants and could never
become American citizens.
1871 – A mob of whites hung 15 Chinese, shot 4 others to death
and wounded 2 in Los Angeles in mob violence that police
connected with an internal Chinese community conflict about a
Chinese woman. All of the killers convicted for these crimes were
released from prison one year later.
1873 – The International Hotel moved to 848 Kearny Street.
1875 – The Page Law prohibited entrance of Mongolian
prostitutes as national policy. Chinese women attempting to
enter the U.S. went through complicated and humiliating
procedures to gain entry.
1877 – Members of a laborers’ union affiliated with the Order of
Caucasians, a white supremacist group, burned the businesses
of Anglos who employed Chinese then burned four Chinese to
death after soaking them with kerosene and setting them ablaze.
Two other Chinese victims survived.
1879 – California State Constitution re: “Chinese;” exclusion from
state funded projects; rejection of incorporation for businesses
employing Chinese.
1882 – The Chinese Exclusion Act banned immigration of
Chinese laborers to the U.S. and prohibited Chinese from being
naturalized; repealed in 1943.
1882 – 100 Korean students and diplomats entered the U.S. to
receive training for Korean independence from Japan.
1885 – The Japanese government officially sanctioned
emigration of Japanese to Hawaii as contract laborers.
1885 – 28 unarmed Chinese coalminers were shot to death and
15 more wounded by Anglo-euro coalminers on strike in Rock
Springs, Wyoming.
1885 – San Francisco and other bay area cities and towns
opened segregated schools for Chinese children.
1886 – In Yick Wo v. Hopkins, The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that
ordinances that were enforced in a discriminatory and unequal
manner by city governments were unconstitutional under the
14th Amendment equal protection clause: a rare instance of
justice for Chinese immigrants.
1888 – The Scott Act prohibited re-entry to the U.S. of Chinese
laborers who had left to visit families and homeland.
1894 – The Federal Circuit Court of Massachusetts decided that
Japanese immigrants were not eligible for naturalization in In re
1896 – Shinsei Kaneko, a Japanese immigrant residing in
Riverside, California was naturalized. Other Japanese
immigrants who became naturalized citizens sometimes had had
their status reversed by state government action in federal
1898 – The Spanish-American War ended and the lesser known
Philippine-American War began. The U.S. military forces
conducted warfare by massacre. American sources cite 250,000
to 600,000 Filipino dead. Philippine sources cite numbers as
high as 1,000,000 deaths directly caused by military action. Most
of the dead were unarmed civilians, women and children. The
U.S. took ownership of the Philippines as a colony by purchase,
despite the fact of military conquest, under the Treaty of Paris.
Filipinos were declared “wards” of the U.S. and thus needed no
travel visas to Hawaii or the continental U.S. Filipino wives of
conquering American veterans were allowed to enter the U.S. as
war brides.
1902 – The Cooper Act, federal law, prohibited alien “orientals”,
including Filipinos, from citizenship by naturalization, ownership
of real property, operation of incorporated businesses and
holding public office.
1903 – Korean laborers arrived in Hawaii to work on sugar
1903 – The agreement between the Philippines, then governed
by an American Commission, and the U.S. allowed Filipino
students to come to the U.S. for college and university education,
many at the elite public and private institutions. The stated
objectives of this program were to develop and westernize the
Philippines and to prepare them for eventual independence.
1906 – The Great San Francisco Earthquake destroys the
International Hotel which is subsequently rebuilt by its owner, the
Milton Meyer Company (real estate and investment).
1906 – California Alien Land Act, aimed at Japanese immigrant
farmers, barred “aliens ineligible [by race] to citizenship” from
owning land. This and other race-specific state laws were
rendered unenforceable or were repealed in 1948.
1906 – The Naturalization Act of l906 restricted availability of
citizenship to white, black and, eventually, Filipino immigrants.
Chinese were specifically barred from citizenship.
1907 – Gentlemen’s Agreement between U.S. and Japan limited
emigration of Japanese laborers – “picture brides”, whose
marriages were arranged through personal correspondence with
Japanese immigrants already in America, were exempted. The
Agreement was supposed to insure equal rights for Japanese in
the U.S.
1907 to 1923 – approximately 14,000 Japanese and 950 Korean
picture brides entered Hawaii.
1906 – Filipinos began to arrive in Hawaii to work on sugar
plantations. Asian Indians begin to arrive in substantial numbers
in California after earlier immigration to the Canadian and U.S.
Pacific Northwest.
1909 – In re Knight: a federal court decides that a person who
was half Asian and half Anglo (British father) was not “white”
enough to be granted citizenship.
1910 – California uses administrative measures to slow Asian
Indian migration into California.
1917 – A “Barred Zone” is established by the 1917 Immigration
Act against all Asian immigrants, including Asian Indians, who
were then inaccurately referred to as “Hindus”.
1918 – The right to become naturalized citizens was extended to
all who enlisted and served in the U.S. military, regardless of
race. This included Asians otherwise excluded from citizenship.
1920 – Filipino and Japanese plantation workers went on strike in
Hawaii against extremely harsh working conditions low pay and
unfair contracts.
1922 – U.S. Supreme Court ruled Japanese ineligible for
naturalization in Takao Ozawa v. The United States. The Cable
Act provided that women citizens who marry aliens would lose
their citizenship.
1923 – Asian Indians were declared ineligible to citizenship in
U.S. v. Bhagat Singh Thind.
1924 – The Immigration Quota Act excluded all aliens ineligible
for citizenship – all Asians except Hawaiians and Filipinos – and
allowed entry of alien wives of Chinese merchants but not alien
wives of U.S. citizens. Asian American historians comment that
the only purpose served by this exclusion of alien wives was to
prohibit the development of a second generation population
among Asian Americans.
1924 – Filipinos are recruited to Hawaii and West Coast
agroindustry in massive numbers as a result of “oriental
exclusion” effective against other Asiatic sources of “cheap
labor”. “Manilatowns” in urban areas, including Los Angeles and
San Francisco grow rapidly into “bachelor communities.”
The Kearny Street community of San Francisco increased in size
to a strip ten blocks long by the mid-1930s. Many “Pinoys”
moved into the South of Market and Fillmore areas of the city.
1928 – Filipinos were forced out of the Yakima Valley in the state
of Washington.
1930 – Fermin Tobera is shot dead during anti-Filipino attacks in
Pajaro Dunes, near Watsonville, California.
1930 – The federal government allowed entry of alien wives of
Chinese American citizens if they were married before May 26,
1931 – Filipinos who served in the U.S. military became eligible
for citizenship. With citizenship came the opportunity for many
Filipinos to own real property and engage in business, especially
on the East and South Coasts.
1934 – The Tydings-McDuffie Act was passed by Congress to
grant independence to the Philippines in 1945 as part of the
popular movement to exclude and repatriate Filipinos. An annual
quota of 50 Filipino immigrants was established. The U.S.
Supreme Court immediately ruled all Filipinos other than military
veterans ineligible for citizenship.
1942 – West Coast Japanese Americans subjected to arrest,
relocation and internment under Presidential Order 9066 without
due process or any other Constitutional rights despite the fact
that the majority of them are U.S. citizens.
1943 – The Chinese immigrant exclusion acts were repealed, the
racial bar against Chinese alien naturalization was removed and
an annual immigration quota of 105 Chinese was established.
Asian American historians attribute this liberalization to the
wartime alliance between China and the U.S. against Japan.
1945 – The War Brides Act provided a waiver of visa
requirements to permit members of the U.S. military to bring in
alien-born spouses, including 200,000 Asian brides. This single
measure contributed substantially to the conversion of Filipino
bachelor society to a family-based community.
1946 – The Federal government placed Chinese wives of
American citizens on nonquota basis, thus increasing the
number who could enter the U.S.
1946 – The Philippines was declared independent and an annual
quota of 100 Filipino immigrants to the U.S. was imposed.
1952 – The McCarran-Walter Act upheld national-origin quotas
based on the 1920 U.S. Census but maintained low quotas for
Asian and Pacific countries. Aliens previously ineligible for
citizenship were allowed to apply for naturalization.
1956 – Dalip Singh Saund of Imperial Valley, California, was
elected to Congress. 1956 – The Alien Land Laws of California
were repealed.
1959 – Hawaii became the 50th state, with Daniel Inouye and
Hiram Fong elected to Congress.
1964 – Patsy Takemoto Mink of Hawaii became the first Asian
American woman Congressperson.
1965 – National-origin quotas were abolished during a short-lived
era of liberal, very open immigration policy. All nations were
allowed an equal annual quota of 20,000 immigrants. The
greatest expansion of Asian and Latino immigrant populations
began at this time and continued into the new millennium (2000)
despite growing anti- immigrant/refugee attitudes and actions
from Anglo/euro-Americans based on economic, cultural and
racial issues.
1975 – The U.S. retreated from Viet Nam but provided for the
resettlement of 130,000 Southeast Asian refugees out of the
millions left behind under persecutive governments. During this
era of economic recession, a racially-charged anti-immigrant and
refugee movement began to gain momentum in the U.S. Much of
the focus of the agitation and violence was directed increasingly
at people of Asian descent in general, without regard to either
their specific ethnicity or citizenship status.
1976 to 1985 – Approximately 762,100 Southeast Asian refugees
resettled in the U.S. under programs that initially placed most of
them in cultural and social isolation in the midwestern states.
80% of these resettled in other areas with higher Asian American
populations, such as the oceanic coasts and the western states,
within a few years.
1982 – The U.S. established an annual ceiling of 10,000 for
Southeast Asian admissions. Congress passed the Amerasian
Immigration Act that gave entry priority to children left behind in
Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Thailand by their
American fathers.
1982 – Vincent Chin, of Detroit, Michigan, was beaten to death
with a baseball bat by two men who blamed Asians for the
problems of American workers. The suspects were only
convicted of manslaughter and punished by a light fine with no
post-trial prison time. Federal convictions for violating Chin’s civil
rights were appealed successfully. With a change of venue for a
new trial, defendants Ebens and Nitz were exonerated. Massive
Asian American community reaction resulted in the formation of
a broad-based anti-race crime movement, anti-hate crime
legislation, and identification and prevention programs.
1989 – After two years of Congressional argument and approval,
President George Bush signed into law redress and reparations
to the Japanese American survivors of the World War 2
concentration camps.
1990 – Congressional Democrats succeed in compromising a bill
that was originally intended to substantially restrict Asian and
Latino immigration. Filipino military veterans of World War II
benefited under related legislation allowing them to immigrate to
the U.S.
Primary Sources:
Sucheng Chan, Asian Americans: An Interpretive History
(Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1991).]
Alex S. Fabros, with Randell Camantigue, Michael Lagui,
Annalissa Herbert, Carina Mifuel, et alia; the Filipino American
Experience Research Project (FAX- RP) at Asian American
Studies, College of Ethnic Studies, San Francisco State
University, 1992-1997.
Daniel Phil Gonzales, Asian American Studies 456: Filipinos in
America; Filipino American Studies Program, Asian American
Studies Department, College of Ethnic Studies, 1978-.

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