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Study Guide
Introduction
to Biology
By
Emily Lain
Reviewed by
Tessa Scrobola
About the Author
Emily J. Lain has a Master of Science degree in Biological Sciences
from the University of Southern Mississippi in Hattiesburg,
Mississippi, and a Bachelor of Science degree in Forestry from the
University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point. During the pursuit of her
degrees, Ms. Lain participated in several research projects pertaining to disturbance ecology. Her most recent project focuses on the
impacts of hurricane disturbance on migratory songbirds during
their spring migration. She also supervised a long-term avian
migration research station and database. Over the past several years,
Ms. Lain worked as a biology laboratory instructor for biological
sciences majors and nursing students. Currently she is researching hurricane impacts, teaching biology labs, and working as an
instructor for this course.
About the Reviewer
Ms. Scrobola went to King’s College for her pre-med undergraduate
degree before going to the University of Scranton for her Master’s
in Secondary Education concentrating in biology. She has her
Pennsylvania teaching certificate in biology. She taught high school
science for a year at Crestwood High School before coming to Penn
Foster, starting in admissions and then moving through Student
CARE and high school as an academic advisor to finally becoming
the college biology and earth science instructor. She also currently
teaches biology at Lackawanna County Community College part
time.
All terms mentioned in this text that are known to be trademarks or service
marks have been appropriately capitalized. Use of a term in this text should not be
regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.
Copyright © 2018 by Penn Foster, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be
reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval
system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner.
Requests for permission to make copies of any part of the work should be
mailed to Copyright Permissions, Penn Foster, 925 Oak Street, Scranton,
Pennsylvania 18515.
Printed in the United States of America
1
LESSON ASSIGNMENTS
7
LESSON 1: THE CELL
11
LESSON 2: GENETICS
45
LESSON 3: EVOLUTION AND THE DIVERSITY OF LIFE
73
LESSON 3 ESSAY QUESTIONS
109
LESSON 4: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
IN PLANTS AND ANIMALS
113
LESSON 5: ECOLOGY
167
LESSON 5 ESSAY QUESTIONS
185
RESEARCH PROJECT
187
SELF-CHECK ANSWERS
193
Contents
INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS
iii
Welcome to the wonderful world of biology! Few subjects can
teach as much about the world around you as biology. During
this course, you’ll gain insight into the origin of life, the relationships among all living organisms and the environment,
and even how your own body works.
The course consists of five lessons. Each lesson covers information from several chapters of the textbook. This study
guide gives you your reading assignments for each chapter of
your textbook. It also highlights and clarifies important information in each chapter.
At the end of each lesson, you’ll complete an examination
covering information from all of the chapters that comprise
that lesson.
OBJECTIVES
When you complete this course, you’ll be able to
n
Describe the characteristics of living things
n
Explain and apply the scientific method
n
Identify the structure and function of eukaryotic and
prokaryotic cells
n
Explain the process of photosynthesis
n
Identify basic chemistry and the properties of water
n
Describe the basic traits of organic molecules
n
Describe the steps involved in cellular respiration
n
Explain the processes of mitosis and meiosis and identify
the phases of each
n
Discuss the basic principles of both Mendelian and
m
­ odern genetics
n
Describe the structure and function of DNA and RNA
n
Describe the traits of cancer and explain how it develops
Instructions
INTRODUCTION
1
n
List the domains and kingdoms of living organisms
n
Discuss Darwin’s theory of natural selection and
e
­ volution
n
Compare and contrast the types of natural selection and
evolution
n
Compare and contrast the traits of microorganisms
n
Differentiate between major plant groups and outline
their characteristics
n
Identify and describe basic plant anatomy, responses,
and reproduction
n
List the characteristics of the major classes of
i­ nvertebrates
n
Name and describe seven classes of nonextinct
v
­ ertebrates
n
Discuss the functions of four types of animal tissues
n
Identify the components and functions of major human
organ systems
n
Identify and explain the components of the immune
s
­ ystem
n
Explain the factors that influence population growth
n
Describe the organization and development of communities, as well as the characteristics of ecosystems
n
Explain the effects modern human society has had on
many of the world’s ecosystems
YOUR TEXTBOOK
Your textbook, Essentials of Biology, contains most of the
detailed information upon which your examinations are
based. Your textbook material is divided into chapters. The
pages for each chapter are clearly indicated in the contents.
Note:Your textbook may be used when taking the final (proctored)
exam.
2
Instructions to Students
Listed below are some of the features of your textbook:
n
“Learning Outcomes” listed at the beginning of each
chapter, to help you focus on what you should learn in
the reading
n
Short questions at the end of each chapter that test your
knowledge about what you’ve read
n
Exercises at the end of each chapter that teach you to
think critically
n
A glossary of key terms
n
An index for fast, easy reference of topics
At the end of every chapter in your textbook is a summary.
Read this material carefully to check your understanding.
Following the summary are a number of tools you can use to
review the material you’ve just studied. We highly recommend
that you complete “Key Terms,” “Testing Yourself,” “Thinking
Scientifically,” and “Bioethical Issue.” The answers to most of
these questions and problems are included in Appendix B.
COURSE MATERIALS
This course includes the following materials:
1. This study guide, which contains an introduction to your
course, plus
n
A lesson assignments page with a schedule of study
assignments
n
Assignment lessons emphasizing the main points in
the textbook
n
Self-checks and answers to help you assess your
understanding of the material
n
A research project
2. Your course textbook, Essentials of Biology, which
­contains the assigned reading material. The McGraw
Hill online resource is not part of the course. It is not
required.
Instructions to Students
3
Please take a look at the research project at the end of this
study guide so you’ll know what’s expected of you in completing the project. You can work on the project as you work
through the course. Don’t wait until you complete all the
coursework before you begin the research project.
A STUDY PLAN
This study guide is intended to help you achieve the maximum benefit from the time you spend on this course. It
doesn’t replace the textbook in any way. It serves as an introduction to the material that you’ll read in the book and as an
aid to assist you in understanding this material.
This study guide divides your course into five lessons. Each
lesson contains several assignments, with a self-check for
each assignment. A comprehensive examination covers the
material from each of the five lessons. Be sure to complete all
work related to a lesson before moving on to the next lesson.
Below is a suggested format for using this study guide.
Remember that this is just a suggested plan. If you feel that
another method would help you learn more effectively, by all
means use that method.
1. Note the pages for each assignment.
2. Scan the assigned pages in the textbook. Make a note of
the headings and illustrations. Write down questions to
yourself.
3. Keep your textbook open to the chapter and read the
assignment text in this study guide. When the study
guide makes references to passages or figures in the
textbook, refer to the text to complete your understanding. It may answer your questions or inspire more.
4. Read the assigned pages in the textbook. This time, pay
close attention to details. Concentrate on gaining an
understanding of the concepts being presented.
4
Instructions to Students
5. Check on anything that’s still not clear, and reexamine
the pages and illustrations to which the study guide
refers. Then complete the self-check. You can check your
answers using the answers at the back of this study
guide. If you have problems completing any self-check
question, reread the sections of the textbook that pertain
to the problem area.
6. Complete each assignment in this way. If you miss any
questions, review the pages of the textbook covering
those questions. The self-checks are designed to reveal
weak points that you need to review. Don’t send the selfcheck answers to the school. They’re for you to evaluate
your understanding of the material.
7. When you’ve completed all of the assignments for the
first lesson and you feel confident that you understand
the material covered, take the lesson examination.
8. When you receive the results of your examination, don’t
dwell on any mistakes you made. Simply note which
questions you answered wrong, go back to the textbook
to locate the right answer, and move on. A successful
learner isn’t someone who never makes mistakes; a successful learner is someone who learns to benefit from
correcting mistakes. After all, once you’ve corrected a
mistake, you know the right answer and shouldn’t make
the same mistake again.
Repeat these steps for each lesson in this course. At any
time, you can contact your instructor for information regarding the materials.
You’re now ready to begin Lesson 1. Good luck and have fun!
Remember to regularly check your student homepage. Your instructor
may post additional resources that you can access to enhance your
learning experience.
Instructions to Students
5
NOTES
6
Instructions to Students
Read in the
study guide:
Read in the
textbook:
Assignment 1
Chapter 1
Assignment 2
Chapter 2
Assignment 3
Chapter 3
Assignment 4
Chapter 4
Assignment 5
Chapter 5
Assignment 6
Chapter 6
Assignment 7
Chapter 7
Examination 350237RR Material in Lesson 1
Lesson 2: Genetics
Read in the
study guide:
Read in the
textbook:
Assignment 8
Chapter 8
Assignment 9
Chapter 9
Assignment 10
Chapter 10
Assignment 11
Chapter 11
Assignment 12
Chapter 12
Assignment 13
Chapter 13
Examination 350238RR Material in Lesson 2
Lesson Assignments
Assignments
Lesson 1: The Cell
7
Lesson 3: Evolution and the Diversity of Life
Read in the
study guide:
Read in the
textbook:
Assignment 14
Chapter 14
Assignment 15
Chapter 15
Assignment 16
Chapter 16
Assignment 17
Chapter 17
Assignment 18
Chapter 18
Assignment 19
Chapter 19
Examination 350240RR Material in Lesson 3
Lesson 3 Essay Examination 35024100
Lesson 4: Structure and Function in Plants
and Animals
Read in the
study guide:
Read in the
textbook:
Assignment 20
Chapter 20
Assignment 21
Chapter 21
Assignment 22
Chapter 22
Assignment 23
Chapter 23
Assignment 24
Chapter 24
Assignment 25
Chapter 25
Assignment 26
Chapter 26
Assignment 27
Chapter 27
Assignment 28
Chapter 28
Assignment 29
Chapter 29
Examination 350243RR Material in Lesson 4
8
Lesson Assignments
Lesson 5: Ecology
Read in the
study guide:
Read in the
textbook:
Assignment 30
Chapter 30
Assignment 31
Chapter 31
Assignment 32
Chapter 32
Examination 350245RR Material in Lesson 5
Lesson 5 Essay Examination 35028900
Research Project 35024800
Note: To access and complete any of the examinations for this study
guide, click on the appropriate Take Exam icon on your student portal.
You should not have to enter the examination numbers. These numbers
are for reference only if you have reason to contact Student Services.
Lesson Assignments
9
NOTES
10
Lesson Assignments
The Cell
Your first lesson consists of seven assignments that cover
Chapters 1–7 of your textbook. Chapter 1 introduces the
­science of biology, and Chapters 2–7 cover the cell.
OBJECTIVES
When you complete this lesson, you’ll be able to
n
Describe the characteristics of living things
n
Differentiate between the levels of biological organization
n
Describe how organisms are classified
n
Discuss the scientific method and its importance in the
biological sciences
n
Explain the atomic structure of matter and the different
kinds of chemical bonds
n
Describe the properties of water and explain why it’s vital
to life on Earth
n
Summarize the properties and different groups of organic
molecules
n
Describe and explain the structural organization of cells
n
Explain the basic processes of diffusion and osmosis
n
Describe a basic enzymatic reaction
n
Identify the basic processes of photosynthesis
n
Discuss the nature of cellular respiration
Lesson 1
INTRODUCTION
11
ASSIGNMENT 1: A VIEW OF LIFE
Refer to the following information as you read Chapter 1 in
your textbook.
The Characteristics of Life
Biology is the scientific study of life. Several characteristics
help to define the term life:
1. All living things (organisms) are composed of cells that
contain genes. Genes are composed of DNA inherited
from a parent through reproduction.
2. All living things obtain energy from their surroundings
and use it to grow, develop, and maintain specific internal conditions.
3. Living organisms can sense changes in their environment
and adjust their activities in response to those changes.
4. Living organisms exhibit modifications that represent
adaptations to their environment.
Chapter 1 begins with a discussion on the abundance of
­bacterial flora found on the surface of the human body.
Diverse life exists nearly everywhere on Earth. Scientists have
barely begun to estimate the number of species living on the
planet. Despite the tremendous variation that exists among
species, all living things share certain characteristics. Review
Figure 1.2 to consider the levels of biological organization
from molecules to organ systems. The cell, which you’ll
study throughout this lesson, is the smallest unit of biological organization that displays all of the characteristics of
life. In complex multicellular organisms, cells form specialized
tissues, organs, and organ systems. Then this organization
continues all the way up to the biosphere.
Evolution: The Core Concept of Biology
Just as all living organisms share many of the same characteristics, overwhelming evidence suggests that they also
originated from a common, ancient ancestor. Evolution is the
process by which species arise and change over time through
12
Introduction to Biology
the process of natural selection. Examine Figure 1.6 to view
an evolutionary tree with the lineages of major life forms
and an overview of how life developed on Earth over the
past 3.5 billion years.
Natural Selection
Natural selection is the process whereby a population develops adaptations to its environment and is what leads to
evolution over a long period of time. Four conditions must be
met for natural selection to occur:
1. Population members exhibit differences that are heritable
(can be inherited).
2. Population members produce more offspring than can be
supported by the environmental resources.
3. Competition exists between population members for
­limited resources and results in increased survival and
reproduction of better adapted individuals.
4. Through many generations, a greater portion of the population exhibits adaptations to the environment and thus
the population as a whole evolves.
Your textbook provides some interesting examples that will
help you understand how evolution, or descent with modification, occurs over time.
Organizing the Diversity of Life
Biologists use the science of taxonomy to classify organisms
into groups according to the ways in which they’re related to
one another. Classification categories range from the most
specific (a species) to the very general (a domain). Each species has a binomial (two-part) scientific name that consists of
both the genus and species names.
Lesson 1
13
The standard system of classification separates all living organisms into three domains (Archaea, Bacteria, and
Eukarya). Following is an explanation of each:
1. Domain Archaea is made up of prokaryotic, unicellular organisms that live in extreme habitats, such as
deep ocean steam vents. Prokaryotic organisms lack the
­membrane-bounded nucleus and membranous organelles
typical of eukaryotes.
2. Domain Bacteria consists of prokaryotic, unicellular bacteria. They inhabit a wide variety of environments and
display a remarkable range of adaptations.
3. Domain Eukarya consists of four kingdoms:
a.
Kingdom Protista are organisms that may be unicellular, multicellular, or colonial. They have more internal
complexity than prokaryotes.
b.
Kingdom Fungi are eukaryotic, multicelled organisms
that display extracellular digestion. That is, they break
down dead organic debris as a source of sustenance.
c.
Kingdom Plantae are multicelled, eukaryotic organisms
with vascular tissues that use photosynthesis to produce energy. Photosynthesis is the process of using
sunlight to synthesize sugars from raw materials.
d.
Kingdom Animalia are eukaryotic, multicelled, consumers (that is, they don’t produce their own nutrients) that
are usually mobile.
Review the photographs in Table 1.2 and accompanying text
for an overview of the biological domains and kingdoms.
Science: A Way of Knowing
Biology has countless fields of emphasis ranging from ecology
to biochemistry. Scientists use the scientific method to guide
their research and gain a better understanding of natural
phenomena.
The scientific method involves the following steps:
1. Develop a question that you would like to answer based
on observations you’ve made.
14
Introduction to Biology
2. Based on your observations and on the findings of past
scientists, develop a hypothesis, your best possible explanation to the question posed.
3. Based on your hypothesis, make predictions on what you
think will occur.
4. Find ways to test your predictions by conducting experiments or by making further observations.
5. Develop conclusions by analyzing and reporting your test
results.
To test a hypothesis, scientists will often conduct an experiment, which is a series of steps designed to test an idea.
Experimental design is important in identifying which variables are to be involved and tested within an experiment.
When a scientific study is carried out in a laboratory setting,
environmental conditions can be more closely controlled
while the experimental variable is changed or manipulated.
Test groups are provided with the experimental variable while
control groups are not.
A common example is the testing of a new drug—the test
group receives the drug while the control group unknowingly
receives a placebo, a harmless substitute. Data collected
during the experiment are analyzed and then followed by a
conclusion to accept or reject the hypothesis. If there isn’t
sufficient evidence to provide support for the hypothesis, the
experimental results can often help a scientist formulate a
new hypothesis to test and the process continues. Figure
1.8 presents a flow diagram describing the various steps of
the scientific method. Study this figure, and then view the
example of a controlled study. An experiment must be repeatable—that is, another scientist should be able to repeat the
same study carried out previously and achieve the same
results.
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