See the picture first ignore the chapter 9-12 I provide the summary of the readings for you , it should be helpful for you .
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Running head: UNDENIABLE: CHAPTERS’ SUMMARIES
Undeniable: Chapters’ Summaries
UNDENIABLE: CHAPTERS’ SUMMARIES
Undeniable: Chapters’ Summaries
Undeniable: Ch. 1-4: Evolution and Creation
In the first chapter of this book, the author takes a reflection and ponders about the place
of Evolution to human. Titled Me You and Evolution, the first chapter acknowledges that
evolution occurred and continues to occur in subtle but significant ways with huge impacts on
humanity today. From hereditary issues to the concept of natural selection by Charles Darwin,
this chapter provides an count of how evolution is still at work in the present world with
increased scientific research and discoveries. The author asserts that by reading the rest of the
book, the reader will appreciate the universe and the earth as a planet within it. The evolution is
evident in different aspects of life like technological advancements that man has made over the
years. The chapter acknowledges that despite its several and explicit benefits, many people
remain hostile or resistant to evolution yet evolution dwarfs everything about man in the world.
In the second chapter, the author discusses the debate on creation. The chapter explores
the viability of creationism and the application of the term to the modern society or world. The
chapter elucidates the concept of creation starting with the age of the earth as offered by the
Bible and on the other hand science. The author debunks the creation story as a myth that lacks
scientific evidence and proponents of these myth; especially their children are bound to live a
troubled life. Therefore, through his presentation in a conference in his native area of Kentucky,
the author is categorical that the earth is older than what the Bible supposes and the creation
myth. The author also debunks Biblical events like Noah’s ark and uses scientific evidence to
prove that the Biblical accounts are nothing but myths aimed at hoodwinking people.
The third chapter is about the comparative approach that the author takes between
creationism and the second law of thermodynamics. As such, the author provides an account of
the arguments against evolution that are perpetrated by its opponents. The author is categorical
that these people find evolution theory questionable because of their strong emotional and
philosophical underpinnings. Opponents of the Second Law of Thermodynamics criticize it
because of their creationist perspectives and inability to comprehend it as it should be for
effective implementation. Here, the author discusses attributes of the law while dispelling the
held myths and stereotypes against it by proponents of the creationism. Therefore, through
persuasive description, the author insists that creationism is unable to provide effective answers
on the working of the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
In the fourth chapter, the author asserts that like organizations with organized structures,
nature also has an organized approach to doing things. Imperative, nature does not exist with its
inherent order and way of making sure that things happen. However, there is one distinction
between how nature organizes its matters and how humans do theirs. Humans are organized from
top to the bottom where hierarchical order starts at the top most people to the least; even in
organizations. For instance, in nature, changes made in the past can only determine if or not there
will be changes in the future in our social organization. The author provides the evidence of a
DNA strand where changes that occurred in an organism will be present in the future. The other
UNDENIABLE: CHAPTERS’ SUMMARIES
is categorical that all the things happening in science in particular and in the world in general are
outcomes of evolution; a process that has brought progress.
Undeniable Ch. 5-8
In chapter five, the author considers evolution to go beyond what people think. It is a
deep dive into deep time that can only be compared to staring into the abyss. It is impossible to
imagine evolution because the earth has been in existence for over 4.5 billion years. Life began
on earth began over 3.5 billion years ago according to data from different scientists; geologists,
biologists, chemists and geochemists among others. Therefore, evolution becomes a significant
topic based on the number of years that the earth has been in existence as well as the beginning
of life. The chapter offers an account of different living things and geological features which
demonstrate that evolution is active.
In the sixth chapter, the author provides an in-depth account of how people in the past
viewed evolution and natural selection as connected concepts. The chapter dispels commonly
held religious views about the origin of the earth. The author observes that people have all along
appreciated evolution that led to extinction of some species like dinosaur. Early geologists like
James Hutton, philosophers like Aristotle and Charles Lyell among others have explored the
different areas of life to determine that the evolution process has taken years to get humanity to
where it is today. These early scientific research studies were premised on the idea advanced by
scientists like Charles Darwin through their theories on evolution and natural selection.
In the seventh chapter, the author notes that many naturalists or biologists emerged along
with Darwin to demonstrate that evolution is the basis of life and its different forms on earth as
opposed to the creationism myth. The author observes that before naturalists came into the scene,
philosophers had grappled with the question about the origin of the earth and life. These
philosophers believed that living things had a soul or a metaphysical attribute that they passed on
to their next generation. The author asserts that efforts from scientists like Chavelier de Lamarck
and others were instrumental in helping people understand evolution as well as natural selection
by Darwin’s predecessors. Through Lamarck, the scientific world concluded that evolution is a
continuous process and occurs at each generation as living organism interact with their
environments and reproduce.
The eighth chapter is a fascinating chapter on sexual selection and starts with an exciting
story by the author about his French aunt who would be referred to as a “total babe” today.
Therefore, the author considers sexual selection as the second fundamental concept in the
evolution theory. Through sexual selection, organisms from same species make a selection of
genes that should be passed to their next generations. Sexual selection is influenced by different
interplays in an individual’s environment and interactions with others. The author is categorical
that the Bible does not consider the concept of sexual selection as very critical to understanding
nature and human conduct in their environment. Sexual selection illustrates that diversity is an
inherent part of an effective natural process and evolution. It is based on the features discussed in
sexual selection that drives people to seek mates.
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