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From those two files, have covered a series of political and intellectual interactions between China and Japan. How do you understand the role and influence of Japan in the trajectory of Chinese history from 1895 to 1949?Please write a 2-page response (12-point font, double-spaced) to this question. In your essay, please use concrete examples to support your claims and reasoning. You are allowed to refer to our textbooks and other assigned readings for writing your response, but please do cite appropriately if you need to quote/paraphrase something from the textbooks and the readings.


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Role And Influence Of Japan In The China History From 1895 To 1949
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International Entanglements
before the Sino-Japanese War
Feb. 26th, 2019
The Geopolitical Issue of Manchuria: Scope
➢ 19th -20th Century: A contested borderland
where China, Russia, and Japan were the main
➢ A liminal and indeterminate historical space
being characterized by warfare, but also by
opportunities for local elites who are able to
play off one outside power against another;
China Proper
The Geopolitical Issue of Manchuria: Historical Overview
➢ Qing Period (1644-1912)
• Formation of the concept of “Manchuria” as a distinctive region;
• Qing Frontier Policy: Ensuring the distinctive environmental
(forests), socio-economic (ginseng, mushroom, and fur trade),
and cultural (language and customs) features of this region;
➢ Late Nineteenth Century: Increasing Degree of Sinicization
• Triggers: Famine in north China; Expansions of Russia and Japan;
• Lift of the ban on immigration into this region from China Proper
• Population:
o 1787: 150,000
o 1907: 1.5 million, 81,000 were non-Chinese;
The Geopolitical Issue of Manchuria: Russia and Japan
➢ 1897 Built and maintained military & territorial
control over the Chinese Eastern Railroad;
➢ 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki, Japan demanded
to cede the Liaodong Peninsula;
➢ 1900, After the Boxers, Controlled the entire
➢ 1905, The Treaty of Portsmouth : Lease on the
Guandong Peninsula and the South Manchurian Road;
➢ 1915, 21 Demands, Privileged economic rights in
southern Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia;
➢ 1903-1927 Economic Expansion:
• Coal and iron mines, electric supply, railways, etc.
• Manchurian share of Chinese foreign trade went from 3.5
to 32.5 percent, chiefly with Japan;
• By 1927, 85 percent of the Japanese investment was in
China, 80 percent of this was in Manchuria
The Geopolitical Issue of Manchuria
1928 Nationalist
The Geopolitical Issue of Manchuria: The Mukden Incident
➢ Borderland Politics before 1928:
• Zhang Zuolin (1875-1928): sided with different countries at different times;
• 1911-1928 Cooperation between Zhang and Japan;
• 1920s Gradual Independence of Zhang from Japanese Influence: 1) Zhang’s ambition at
the position in Beijing; 2) Built up core civilian support in the Mukden clique;
• 1928 Japanese feared Zhang’s increasing military involvement south of the Great Wall;
Assassination of Zhang;
➢ The Nationalist Turn after 1928:
• Zhang Xueliang (1901-2001) succeeded his father and declared his
allegiance to the GMD of a unified China;
• 1930 Extended his base into North China;
• Railway Rights: Tried to take over the CER; Built and expanded
railway lines to compete with the SMR;
• Denial of landownership to Japanese nationals;
The Geopolitical Issue of Manchuria: The Mukden Incident
➢ The Mukden Incident:
• September 18, 1931, the Guandong Army set a bomb on
an SMR line near Mukden;
• Jiang Jieshi ordered Zhang Xueliang to withdrawal;
• 1932 Japan occupied all of the Manchuria; establishment
of the independent Republic of Manchukuo;
➢ The Manchukuo:
• Puppet State: Puyi as the “chief executive;” The real
power belonged to Japan;
• Military Regime: Guandong army was the dominant
• A Modern Developmental State: 1) development of an
industrial base; 2) unified currency; 3) banking system;
• A Brutal Regime: 1) monopolistic nature of the
industrialization; 2) agricultural exploitation; 3) germ
warfare experimentation;
International Reactions to the Manchuria Issue
➢ Initial Attempts of the League of Nations:
➢ 1933 The Breakdown of the International Framework:

• Japan was unlikely to resume its responsible and peaceful
U.S. actively proposed to internationalize the
Manchuria Issue;

1931 The British Statesmen Lord Lytton
• Global Trends to economic regionalism;
ordered a commission to investigate the
• 1933 Adjustment of American Foreign Policy: to prevent
situations in Manchuria; The Lytton Report;
war through direct negotiations with individual counties,
General Attitude: Solve the Manchuria crisis
rather than through the League of Nations;
within the framework of international
collaboration and without alienating Japan;

1932 Henry Stimson proposed to Britain to
join together in condemning Japanese acts;
Britain did not respond;
• The Soviet Union: Avoid premature clashed with Japan
Responses of the Nationalist Government: Conceptualizations of
World Order in the 1920s and 1930s
➢ The “Imperialism” Framework: Since the mid-19th Century
• A system at diplomatic balance;
• Implication: competition and rivalry among the imperialist powers could be manipulated for China’s benefit;
➢ Perception of the New World Order in the 1920s and 1930s: Hope for the International Approach:
• The economic interests of the Anglo-American powers and Japan were incompatible; War between
Japan and the Anglo-American powers were inevitable;
• War between Soviet Union and Japan was also inevitable because of ideological and geopolitical
• Chance for China to achieve international alliances against Japanese expansion;
Responses of the Nationalist Government: Negotiations with
Japan, 1933-1934
➢ After 1933, The Gradualist Approach: Appease Japan while eradicating military-regional rival regimes;
➢ 1934 Preparation for a Settlement with Japan on the basis of status quo:
• Negotiations: mail and railway systems, tariff revision, debt settlement;
• China accepted the existence of Manchukuo as a separate entity;
• Japan pledged not to undertake further territorial acquisition southward;
Gradual Preparation for the War: Reversal of the Japanese Policy, 1935-1937
➢ 1935-1937 Reversal of the Japanese Policy
• General Doihara Kenji undermined the incipient structure of Chinese-Japanese
• New Policies: 1) Separate North China; 2) Remove GMD influences; 3) Establish provisional
regimes controlled by Japanese forces;
➢ Secret Preparations of the Nationalist Government:
• Military Affairs Commission: fortification plans for six cities in the lower Yangzi Region;
• Constructions of batteries and other military facilities along the Yangzi River;
• Plan to control the western provinces of Guizhou and Sichuan
Gradual Preparation for the War: Potential Alliances
➢ The Nationalist Government and Soviet Union:
• 1934 Preliminary Contacts: potential alliances against Japan;
• 1935 Negotiations between Jiang Jieshi and the Soviet Ambassador Domitiri Bogomolov;
➢ The Nationalist Government and CCP:
• 1936 Negotiations between Chen Lifu (GMD) and Zhou Enlai (CCP): 1) cooperation against
Japan; 2) reorganization of the red armies; 3) future alliance with the Soviet Union;
• After November, GMD position hardened—deadlock situation of the ongoing negotiations;
➢ 1936 The Xi’an Incident
• Zhang Xueliang captured Jiang Jieshi and forced him to abandon the anticommunist campaigns and take an
anti-Japanese stand;
• Prelude to the full-scale allied fight against the Japanese;
The Second Sino-Japanese
Feb.28th, 2019
Timeline of the Main Events
➢ 1937 Conflict at the Marco Polo Bridge (Near Beijing)
➢ 1937 Jiang Jieshi Shifted the Main Battleground from North China to Shanghai
• A Strategic Gamble
• The Military Base of Jiang Jieshi in Shanghai: Best German-trained military divisions; Jiang’s
military forces outnumbered the Japanese by more than 10 to 1;
• A Tough Battle: 250,000 Chinese Troops were killed or wounded; Jiang lost 60 percent of his
finest forces;
➢ 1937 Japanese Occupation and Massacre at Nanjing
• 30,000 fugitive soldiers were killed; 12,000 civilians were murdered; 20,000 women were raped;
➢ 1937 The Nationalist Government Retreated to Chongqing
➢ 1938 Japan Took Guangdong (Canton) and Wuhan
➢ 1938 Division of China:
• Under the Control of Japan: Manchukuo, Inner Mongolia, Northeast China South of the Great
Wall, East and Central China;
• Under GMD Control: Chongqing
• Under CCP Control: Yan’an (Shaanxi Province)
➢ 1940 The Nationalist Government Officially Moved Its Capital to Chongqing
The Retreat in 1937:
Trading Space for Time
➢ A Great Loss:
• The nationalist government had lost de facto
control over the whole eastern China;
• Loss of the wealthy commercial and industrial
cities & the most fertile farmlands;
➢ Deeper Strategic Concerns:
• Jiang Jieshi: “Trading Space for Time”
• Long-term planning for retreating into the
remote hinterlands of southwestern China;
for Japan
➢ Japan: Limited Supplies of Resources
• Huge cost of the war;
• Demand for oil, rubber, and other raw
materials—depended on the U.S.,
Britain, and the Netherlands;
• Vying for western colonies in
Southeastern Asia;
➢ Tension between Japan and the U.S.
• 1938 U.S.: banned the export of
aeronautical materials;
• 1939 Abrogation of the U.S.Japanese Trade Treaty
• 1941 Japanese occupation of
Indochina—US-Dutch-British export
ban on oil and iron;
• 1941 Japanese attack on the Pearl
Harbor—U.S. joined the war;
• 1942-1943 Major military pressures
on Japan from the U.S.
Tasks for both GMD and CCP
1. How to protect their domains from further Japanese assaults;
2. How to establish some form of viable government structure;
3. How to strengthen the loyalty of those living in the areas they ruled;
4. How to build up support inside the Japanese dominated areas for future
The Nationalist Government in Chongqing:
Administrative and Military Penetration
➢ Nationalist Government in Chongqing: 1) Supreme National Defense Council; 2) Military Affairs Commission;

Reorganization of Military Forces:
Cooperation with the Warlord in Yunnan;
Inserted GMD cadres into the provincial armies;
Rebuilt the central forces with newly trained
officers and modern equipment;
o Uneven allocation of new weapons and
o Provincial militarists became unsatisfied;
➢ Military Supply:
• Japanese Blocakge of Transportation Systems:
1) 1939 Seized Nanchang and cut the Zhejiang-Hunan Railway;
2) After occupying Guangdong, severed the railway line from
3) 1940 Occupied the northern part of French Indo-China; Closed
the rail line between Hanoi and Kunming;
• 1939 The Burma Road: China’s only link to military and gasoline
• U.S. Aid: By the end of the war, a total of a billion dollars, large cash
credits amounting to 500 million dollars
The Nationalist Government in Chongqing: Economic
Planning and Management
➢ Economic Policies
➢ Relocation of Industries
• Taxation: Centralized and
• First Wave: Military
simplified taxation;
industries (airplane
• Currency: Issued 30 million yuan
assembly plants and
of the new fabi note to redeem the
arsenals) in Nanjing,
local notes;
Wuhan, and Guangdong;
• Established monopolies in tobacco,
sugar, salt, and matches;
• Took over factories for war
• Seized grain from peasants;
• Price controls;
• Iron and Steel factories,
textile factories, and privateowned factories followed
➢ Rural Settlement
• 1938, The government
planned to resettle five
million refugees to open land
for grain cultivation;
The Nationalist Government in Chongqing: Relocation
of Universities
➢ Kunming’s Southwest Associated
• Combination of Beijing, Tsinghua, and Nankai
• Center for criticism of the regime;
➢ Other Universities followed:
• By 1939, only six high-education institutions
remained in Japanese-occupied territory;
• 52 educational institutions had fled into the
➢ Returned freedom of speech, assembly, and
the press;
CCP in Yan’an: Construction of Base Areas
➢ Border Region Government:
1) Shaan/Gan/Ning: Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia;
• Center of CCP
• End of the long march—1947;
• The rise of Maoism;
2) Jin/Cha/Ji: Shanxi, Chahar, Hebei;
➢ Military Forces:
• Eighth Routh Army; New Fourth Army;
• Local Forces: armies remaining in its own
territorial jurisdiction;
• Militia: armies equipped with broadswords and
farm tools;
1935 End of the
Long March
CCP in Yan’an: Ideological Control and the
Rectification Campaign of 1942-1944
➢ Motivations:
➢ Maoism:
• Expansion of CCP membership: By 1942,
• Nationalistic Impulse: the real enemy was foreign
over 700,000;
• Necessity of party discipline: 1) some
• Thought Reform: correct thought was the
students and intellectuals were too
essential prerequisite for effective revolutionary
independent; 2) to discipline peasant
activists who might abuse their power; 3)
improve the basic literacy of party members;
• To cement Mao Zedong’s position within the
• To explore an ideological basis of the CCP;
• Mass Line: 1) The ultimate goal of rectification
was not to work for the masses but to become
one within them; 2) assumed a sovereignty lay in
people, but a sovereignty at some distance from
the actual instrument of power;
CCP in Yan’an: Ideological Control and the
Rectification Campaign of 1942-1944
➢ Effect and Legacy:
➢ Format of the Campaign:
❖ Tend to reduce the gap between the leaders and the led:
❖ Study Groups: small groups of cadres participated in study
• Use mass line to mitigate bureaucratic control from
sessions that were devoted to examining Maoist documents
and to self-criticism;
❖ Hunt for Spies and Enemies within the Communist Camp:
• Some people were beaten or driven to suicide;
• Esp. targeted at intellectuals and artists;
the above;
• Insistence on political structures that were responsive
to local needs and conditions;
• Demanded Party cadres, government officials, and
intellectuals to participate in labor;
❖ Rigid dogmas and orthodoxies in political and cultural
❖ Foreshadowed the political, economic, and
educational life during the PRC period;

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