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Please answer the following 3 questions. Each answer must be at least 4 paragraphs. Research at least 4 sources to substantiate your answer and include in your references. I will attached the book. APA format. 1. Describe the link between quality and safety in the healthcare setting.2. Discuss the role of the nurse in quality improvement.3. Describe nursing-sensitive measurements and why they are important in Nursing care delivery.

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The Pedagogy Role Development in
Professional Nursing Practice, Fourth Edition
drives comprehension through various
strategies that meet the learning needs of
students, while also generating enthusiasm
about the topic. This interactive approach
addresses different learning styles, making
this the ideal text to ensure mastery of key
concepts. The pedagogical aids that appear in
most chapters include the following:
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Professional Nursing Practice, Fourth Edition is an independent publication and has not been
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Role development in professional nursing
practice / [edited by] Kathleen Masters. – Fourth edition.
p. ; cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-284-07832-9 (pbk.) I. Masters, Kathleen, editor.
[DNLM: 1. Nursing–standards. 2. Nursing–trends. 3. Nurse’s Role. 4. Philosophy, Nursing. 5.
Professional Practice. WY 16]
Printed in the United States of America 19 18 17 16 15 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
This book is dedicated to my Heavenly Father
and to my loving family: my husband, Eddie,
and my two daughters, Rebecca and Rachel.
Words cannot express my appreciation for their
ongoing encouragement and support throughout
my career.
A History of Health Care and Nursing
Karen Saucier Lundy and Kathleen Masters
Classical Era
Middle Ages
The Renaissance
The Dark Period of Nursing
The Industrial Revolution
And Then There Was Nightingale…
Continued Development of Professional Nursing in the United Kingdom
The Development of Professional Nursing in Canada
The Development of Professional Nursing in Australia
Early Nursing Education and Organization in the United States
The Evolution of Nursing in the United States: The First Century of Professional
The New Century
International Council of Nurses
Frameworks for Professional Nursing Practice
Kathleen Masters
Overview of Selected Nursing Theories
Nurse of the Future: Nursing Core Competencies
Overview of Selected Non-Nursing Theories
Relationship of Theory to Professional Nursing Practice
Philosophy of Nursing
Mary W. Stewart
Early Philosophy
Developing a Personal Philosophy of Nursing
Foundations of Ethical Nursing Practice
Janie B. Butts and Karen L. Rich
Ethical Theories and Approaches
Professional Ethics and Codes
Ethical Analysis and Decision Making in Nursing
Social Context of Professional Nursing
Mary W. Stewart, Katherine Elizabeth Nugent, Rowena W. Elliott, and
Kathleen Masters
Nursing’s Social Contract with Society
Public Image of Nursing
The Gender Gap
Changing Demographics and Cultural Competence
Access to Health Care
Societal Trends
Trends in Nursing
Education and Socialization to the Professional Nursing Role
Kathleen Masters and Melanie Gilmore
Professional Nursing Roles and Values
The Socialization (or Formation) Process
Facilitating the Transition to Professional Practice
Advancing and Managing Your Professional Nursing Career
Mary Louise Coyne and Cynthia Chatham
Nursing: A Job or a Career?
Trends That Impact Nursing Career Decisions
Showcasing Your Professional Self
Education and Lifelong Learning
Professional Engagement
Expectations for Your Performance
Taking Care of Self
Patient Safety and Professional Nursing Practice
Jill Rushing and Kathleen Masters
Patient Safety
Critical Thinking, Clinical Judgment, and Clinical Reasoning in Nursing Practice
Quality Improvement and Professional Nursing Practice
Kathleen Masters
Healthcare Quality
Measurement of Quality
The Role of the Nurse in Quality Improvement
Professional Nursing Practice
10 Evidence-Based
Kathleen Masters
Evidence-Based Practice: What Is It?
Barriers to Evidence-Based Practice
Promoting Evidence-Based Practice
Searching for Evidence
Evaluating the Evidence
Implementation Models for Evidence-Based Practice
Patient-Centered Care and Professional Nursing Practice
Kathleen Masters
Dimensions of Patient-Centered Care
Communication as a Strategy to Support Patient-Centered Care
Patient Education as a Strategy to Support Patient-Centered Care
Evaluation of Patient-Centered Care
in Professional Nursing Practice
12 Informatics
Kathleen Masters and Cathy K. Hughes
Informatics: What Is It?
The Impact of Legislation on Health Informatics
Nursing Informatics Competencies
Basic Computer Competencies
Information Literacy
Information Management
Current and Future Trends
and Collaboration in Professional Nursing Practice
13 Teamwork
Sharon Vincent and Kathleen Masters
Healthcare Delivery System
Nursing Models of Patient Care
Roles of the Professional Nurse
Interprofessional Teams and Healthcare Quality and Safety
Interprofessional Collaborative Practice Domains
Interprofessional Team Performance and Communication
Issues in Professional Nursing Practice
14 Ethical
Janie B. Butts and Karen L. Rich
Relationships in Professional Practice
Moral Rights and Autonomy
Social Justice
Death and End-of-Life Care
and the Professional Nurse
15 Law
Kathleen Driscoll, Kathleen Masters, and Evadna Lyons
The Sources of Law
Classification and Enforcement of the Law
Nursing Scope and Standards
Malpractice and Negligence
Nursing Licensure
Professional Accountability
Appendix A Standards of Professional Nursing Practice
Appendix B Provisions of Code of Ethics for Nurses
Appendix C The ICN Code of Ethics for Nurses
Although the process of professional development is a lifelong journey, it is a
journey that begins in earnest during the time of initial academic preparation.
The goal of this book is to provide nursing students with a road map to help
guide them along their journey as a professional nurse.
This book is organized into two units. The chapters in the first unit focus
on the foundational concepts that are essential to the development of the
individual professional nurse. The chapters in Unit II address issues related to
professional nursing practice and the management of patient care, specifically
in the context of quality and safety. In the fourth edition, the chapter content
is conceptualized, when applicable, around nursing competencies,
professional standards, and recommendations from national groups, such as
Institute of Medicine reports.
The chapters included in Unit I provide the student nurse with a basic
foundation in areas such as nursing history, theory, philosophy, ethics,
socialization into the nursing role, and the social context of nursing. All
chapters have been updated, and several chapters in Unit I have been
expanded in this edition. Revisions to the chapter on nursing history include
the addition of contributions of prominent nurses and achievements related
to nursing in the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia. The theory
chapter now includes additional nursing theorists as well as a brief overview
of several non-nursing theories frequently used in nursing research and
practice. The social context of nursing chapter now incorporates not only
societal trends, but also trends in nursing practice and education. The
chapter related to professional career development in nursing has been
completely rewritten for this edition.
The chapters in Unit II are more directly related to patient care
management. In the fourth edition, Unit II chapter topics are presented in the
context of quality and safety. Chapter topics include the role of the nurse in
patient safety, the role of the nurse in quality improvement, evidence-based
nursing practice, the role of the nurse in patient-centered care, informatics in
nursing practice, the role of the nurse related to teamwork and collaboration,
ethical issues in nursing practice, and the law as it relates to patient care and
nursing. Most Unit II chapters have undergone major revisions with a refocus
of the content on recommended nursing and healthcare competencies.
The fourth edition continues to incorporate the Nurse of the Future:
Nursing Core Competencies throughout each chapter. The Nurse of the
Future: Nursing Core Competencies “emanate from the foundation of
nursing knowledge” (Massachusetts Department of Higher Education, 2010,
p. 4) and are based on the American Association of Colleges of Nursing’s
Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice,
National League for Nursing Council of Associate Degree Nursing
competencies, Institute of Medicine recommendations, Quality and Safety
Education for Nurses (QSEN) competencies, and American Nurses
Association standards, as well as other professional organization standards
and recommendations. The 10 competencies included in the model are
patient-centered care, professionalism, informatics and technology, evidencebased practice, leadership, systems-based practice, safety, communication,
teamwork and collaboration, and quality improvement. Essential knowledge,
skills, and attitudes (KSA) reflecting cognitive, psychomotor, and affective
learning domains are specified for each competency. The KSA identified in
the model reflect the expectations for initial nursing practice following the
completion of a prelicensure professional nursing education program
(Massachusetts Department of Higher Education, 2010, p. 4).
Source: Modified from Massachusetts Department of Higher Education. (2010). Nurse of the
future: Nursing core competencies (p. 5). Retrieved from
The Nurse of the Future: Nursing Core Competencies graphic illustrates
through the use of broken lines the reciprocal and continuous relationship
between each of the competencies and nursing knowledge, that the
competencies can overlap and are not mutually exclusive, and that all
competencies are of equal importance. In addition, nursing knowledge is
placed as the core in the graphic to illustrate that nursing knowledge reflects
the overarching art and science of professional nursing practice
(Massachusetts Department of Higher Education, 2010, p. 4).
This new edition has competency boxes throughout the chapters that link
examples of the KSA appropriate to the chapter content to Nurse of the
Future: Nursing Core Competencies required of entry-level professional
nurses. The competency model in its entirety is available online at
This new edition continues to use case studies, congruent with Benner,
Sutphen, Leonard, and Day’s (2010) Carnegie Report recommendations that
nursing educators teach for “situated cognition” using narrative strategies to
lead to “situated action,” thus increasing the clinical connection in our
teaching or that we teach for “clinical salience.” In addition, critical thinking
questions are included throughout each chapter to promote student reflection
on the chapter concepts. Classroom activities are also provided based on
chapter content. Additional resources not connected to this text, but
applicable to the content herein, include a toolkit focused on the nursing core
at and teaching activities related to
Although the topics included in this textbook are not inclusive of all that
could be discussed in relationship to the broad theme of role development in
professional nursing practice, it is my prayer that the subjects herein make a
contribution to the profession of nursing by providing the student with a
solid foundation and a desire to grow as a professional nurse throughout the
journey that we call a professional nursing career. Let the journey begin.
—Kathleen Masters
Benner, P., Sutphen, M., Leonard, V., & Day, L. (2010). Educating nurses: A call for radical
transformation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Massachusetts Department of Higher Education. (2010). Nurse of the future: Nursing core
Janie B. Butts, PhD, RN
University of Southern Mississippi College of Nursing
Hattiesburg, Mississippi Cynthia Chatham, DSN, RN
University of Southern Mississippi College of Nursing
Long Beach, Mississippi
Mary Louise Coyne, DNSc, RN
University of Southern Mississippi College of Nursing
Long Beach, Mississippi
Kathleen Driscoll, JD, MS, RN
University of Cincinnati College of Nursing
Cincinnati, Ohio
Rowena W. Elliott, PhD, RN, FAAN
University of Southern Mississippi College of Nursing
Hattiesburg, Mississippi Melanie Gilmore, PhD, RN
University of Southern Mississippi College of Nursing
Hattiesburg, Mississippi Cathy K. Hughes, DNP, RN
University of Southern Mississippi College of Nursing
Hattiesburg, Mississippi Karen Saucier Lundy, PhD, RN, FAAN
Professor Emeritus
University of Southern Mississippi College of Nursing
Hattiesburg, Mississippi Evadna Lyons, PhD, RN
East Central Community College School of Nursing
Decatur, Mississippi
Katherine Elizabeth Nugent, PhD, RN
Dean, College of Nursing University of Southern Mississippi Hattiesburg,
Mississippi Karen L. Rich, PhD, RN
University of Southern Mississippi College of Nursing
Long Beach, Mississippi
Jill Rushing, MSN, RN
University of Southern Mississippi College of Nursing
Hattiesburg, Mississippi Mary W. Stewart, PhD, RN
Director of PhD Program
University of Mississippi Medical Center School of Nursing
Jackson, Mississippi
Sharon Vincent, DNP, RN, CNOR
University of North Carolina College of Nursing
Charlotte, North Carolina
Foundations of Professional Nursing Practice
A History of Health Care and Nursing
Karen Saucier Lundy and Kathleen Masters
Learning Objectives
After completing this chapter, the student should be able to:
1. Identify social, political, and economic influences on the
development of professional nursing practice.
2. Identify important leaders and events that have significantly
affected the development of professional nursing practice.
Key Terms and Concepts
» Greek era
» Roman era
» Deaconesses
» Florence Nightingale
» Reformation
» Chadwick Report
» Shattuck Report
» William Rathbone
» Ethel Fenwick
» Jeanne Mance
» Mary Agnes Snively
» Goldmark Report
» Brown Report
» Isabel Hampton Robb
» American Nurses Association (ANA)
» Lavinia Lloyd Dock
» American Journal of Nursing (AJN)
» Margaret Sanger
» Lillian Wald
» Jane A. Delano
» Annie Goodrich
» Mary Brewster
» Henry Street Settlement
» Elizabeth Tyler
» Jessie Sleet Scales
» Dorothea Lynde Dix
» Clara Barton
» Frontier Nursing Service
» Mary Breckinridge
» Mary D. Osborne
» Frances Payne Bolton
» International Council of Nurses (ICN)
Although no specialized nurse role per se developed in early civilizations,
human cultures recognized the need for nursing care. The truly sick person
was weak and helpless and could not fulfill the duties that were normally
expected of a member of the community. In such cases, someone had to
watch over the patient, nurse him or her, and provide care. In most societies,
this nurse role was filled by a family member, usually female. As in most
cultures, the childbearing woman had special needs that often resulted in a
specialized role for the caregiver. Every society since the dawn of time had
someone to nurs …
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