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In order for you to select the qualitative research approach that best fits your research question, you will need to develop a deeper familiarity with the approaches available to you. This week’s Assignment is the first of a two-part activity designed to broaden and deepen your base of knowledge of qualitative research approaches. While the activity does not encompass all possible approaches, it does allow you to explore the eight most common approaches you are likely to encounter and may wish to consider for yourself. For this Assignment, you will complete the first half of the Qualitative Research Approaches Matrix Template, which is designed to allow you to compare and contrast qualitative research approaches. To prepare for this Assignment: Review this week’s readings, focusing on the differences among the following four types of qualitative research approaches:Generic qualitative inquiryQualitative case studyGrounded theory and realismPhenomenology and heuristic inquiryLocate the Qualitative Research Approaches Matrix Template in this week’s Learning Resources.Read the examples of research studies provided in this week’s Learning Resources.Select additional readings that focus on specific approaches (some suggestions have been provided for you in the Optional Resources).
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Assignment: Qualitative Research Approaches Matrix, Part I

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In order for you to select the qualitative research approach that best fits your research
question, you will need to develop a deeper familiarity with the approaches available to
you. This week’s Assignment is the first of a two-part activity designed to broaden and
deepen your base of knowledge of qualitative research approaches. While the activity
does not encompass all possible approaches, it does allow you to explore the eight
most common approaches you are likely to encounter and may wish to consider for
yourself.
For this Assignment, you will complete the first half of the Qualitative Research
Approaches Matrix Template, which is designed to allow you to compare and contrast
qualitative research approaches.
To prepare for this Assignment:
Review this week’s readings, focusing on the differences among the following four types
of qualitative research approaches:
Generic qualitative inquiry
Qualitative case study
Grounded theory and realism
Phenomenology and heuristic inquiry
Locate the Qualitative Research Approaches Matrix Template in this week’s Learning
Resources.
Read the examples of research studies provided in this week’s Learning Resources.
Select additional readings that focus on specific approaches (some suggestions have
been provided for you in the Optional Resources).
Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the
link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of
your Syllabus.
Required Readings


Patton, M. Q. (2015). Qualitative research & evaluation methods:
Integrating theory and practice (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Chapter 3, “Variety of Qualitative Inquiry Frameworks: Paradigmatic,
Philosophical, and Theoretical Orientations” (pp. 85–168)
Chapter 4, “Practical and Actionable Qualitative Applications” (pp. 169–242)
Basic Qualitative Research
Bowers, B. J., Fibich, B., & Jacobson, N. (2001). Care-as-service, care-asrelating, care-as-comfort: Understanding nursing home residents’ definitions
of quality. The Gerontologist, 41(4), 539–545. Retrieved from
http://gerontologist.oxfordjournals.org/
Care-as-Service, Care-as-Relating, Care-as-Comfort Understanding Nursing Home Residents’ Definitions of Quality by Bowers,
B.; Fibich, B.; Jacobson, N., in The Gerontologist, Vol. 41/Issue 4. Copyright 2001 by Oxford University Press – Journals, The
Gerontological Society of America. Reprinted by permission of Oxford University Press – Journals, The Gerontological Society
of America via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Qualitative Case Study
Donnelly, C., Brenchley, C., Crawford, C., & Letts, L. (2013). The
integration of occupational therapy into primary care: A multiple case study
design. BMC Family Practice, 14(60), 1–12. doi:10.1186/1471-2296-14-60
Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.
Grounded Theory
Barello, S., Graffigna, G., Vegni, E., Savarese, M., Lombardi, F., & Bosio, A.
C. (2015). ‘Engage me in taking care of my heart’: A grounded theory study
on patient-cardiologist relationship in the hospital management of heart
failure. BMJ Open, 5(3), e005582. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005582
Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.
Heuristic Inquiry
Howard, A., & Hirani, K. (2013). Transformational change and stages of
development in the workplace: A heuristic inquiry. Journal of Integral
Theory and Practice, 8(1/2), 71–86. Retrieved from
http://www.metaintegralstore.com/jitp/
Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.
Documents and Tools
Document: R8360 Guidelines for Reading and Evaluating Qualitative
Research Articles (PDF)
Document: Example of How to Read and Evaluate a Qualitative Research
Article (PDF)
Document: Qualitative Research Approaches Matrix Template (Word
Document)
Required Media
Laureate Education (Producer). (2017). Voices from the field [Video file].
Baltimore, MD: Author.
Optional Resources
Bochner, A. P., & Ellis, C. (2016). Evocative autoethnography: Writing lives
and telling stories. New York, NY: Routledge.
Charmaz, K. (2014). Constructing grounded theory (2nd ed.). Thousand
Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2015). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques
and procedures for developing grounded theory (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks,
CA: SAGE.
Fetterman, D. M. (2010). Ethnography: Step-by-step (3rd ed.). Thousand
Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Thousand Oaks,
CA: SAGE.
Smith, J. A., Flowers, P., & Larkin, M. (2009). Interpretative
phenomenological analysis: Theory, method and research. Thousand Oaks,
CA: SAGE.
Note: The following are articles on evaluating methodological quality.
Guest, G., Bunce, A., & Johnson, L. (2006). How many interviews are
enough? An experiment with data saturation and variability. Field Methods,
18(1), 59–82. doi:10.1177/1525822X05279903
Mason, M. (2010). Sample size and saturation in PhD studies using
qualitative interviews. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum:
Qualitative Social Research, 11(3), article 8. Retrieved from
http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs
Mason, Mark (2010). Sample Size and Saturation in PhD Studies Using Qualitative Interviews [63 paragraphs]. Forum
Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 11(3), Art. 8, http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114fqs100387. Used under The Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
Mauthner, N. S., & Doucet, A. (2003). Reflexive accounts and accounts of
reflexivity in qualitative data analysis. Sociology, 37(3), 413–431.
doi:10.1177/00380385030373002
Shenton, A. K. (2004). Strategies for ensuring trustworthiness in qualitative
research projects. Education for Information, 22(2), 63–75. Retrieved from

Education for Information

Note: The following are articles on specific research methods.
Charmaz, K. (2016). The power of constructivist grounded theory for critical
inquiry. Qualitative Inquiry, 23(1), 34–35. doi:10.1177/1077800416657105
Ellis, C., Adams, T. E., & Bochner, A. P. (2010). Autoethnography: An
overview. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social
Research, 12(1), article 10. Retrieved from http://www.qualitativeresearch.net/index.php/fqs
Evans, G. L. (2013). A novice researcher’s first walk through the maze of
grounded theory: Rationalization for classical grounded theory. Grounded
Theory Review, 12(1), 37–55. Retrieved from

Home

Harling, K. (2012). An overview of case study. SSRN Electronic Journal.
doi:10.2139/ssrn.2141476
Higginbottom, G., Pillay, J. J., & Boadu, N. Y. (2013). Guidance on
performing focused ethnographies with an emphasis on healthcare research.
The Qualitative Report, 18(9), 1–6. Retrieved from http://tqr.nova.edu/
Houghton, C., Casey, D., Shaw, D., & Murphy, K. (2013). Rigour in
qualitative case-study research. Nurse Researcher, 20(4), 12–17.
doi:10.7748/nr2013.03.20.4.12.e326
Sloan, A., & Bowe, B. (2014). Phenomenology and hermeneutic
phenomenology: The philosophy, the methodologies, and using hermeneutic
phenomenology to investigate lecturers’ experiences of curriculum design.
Quality & Quantity, 48(3), 1291–1303. doi:10.1007/s11135-013-9835-3
Qualitative Research Methods Matrix
Approach
Basic Qualitative
Inquiry
Disciplinary Roots
Philosophy, history
constructionism,
phenomenology
Focus of Central Research
Question
• How can the experience of
[an event, circumstance,
program, a context] be
described or explored?
• What is the meaning of [a
process, program, or
event] to the target
individual(s) of interest?
Submit in Week 2

Use of the words
“describe,” “explore,”
“experience,” and
“meaning” in title
and research
questions
What “practical”
knowledge can be
learned?
Qualitative Case
Study
Grounded Theory
and Realism
Phenomenology
and Heuristic
Inquiry
Unique Terminology
Emergence of theory,
inductive, theoretical
sampling, constant
comparison, open
coding, axial coding,
saturation, memo
writing
What is the meaning,
structure, and essence of the
lived experience of this
phenomenon for this person
or group of people?
What is my experience of this
phenomenon and the essential
experience of others who also
experience this phenomenon
Primary Data
Sources
Interviews
Sampling Issues
Choice is a function
of the question
Analysis Plan
Guidelines
Content analysis
is a good choice
as it is generic
and exploratory
References
Elo et al., 2014
Merriam, 2009
Saldana, 2016
Worthington,
2013
intensely?
Social
Constructivism
and Narrative
Inquiry
Submit in Week 3
Systems Theory
Select individuals
who have directly
experienced the
phenomenon of
interest
How and why does this system
as a whole function as it does?
What are the system’s
boundaries and
interrelationships, and how do
these affect perspectives
about how and why the
system functions as it does?
Ethnography and
Autoethnography
Interactive and
Participatory
Qualitative
Applications
Ellis, Adams &
Bochner, 2011
Hoey, 2014
Rose, 1993
Action research, coresearcher,
participantresearcher, learning
organization,
dialogue,
appreciative inquiry
Highlight indicates example response.
Modified from Patton, M.Q. (2014). Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods: Integrating Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications
BMC Geriatrics
BioMed Central
Open Access
Research article
Pneumonia care and the nursing home: a qualitative descriptive
study of resident and family member perspectives
Soo Chan Carusone1, Mark Loeb1,2 and Lynne Lohfeld*1,3
Address: 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada, 2Department of Pathology and
Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Canada and 3Program for Educational Research and Development, McMaster University, Canada
Email: Soo Chan Carusone – [email protected]; Mark Loeb – [email protected]; Lynne Lohfeld* – [email protected]
* Corresponding author
Published: 23 January 2006
BMC Geriatrics 2006, 6:2
doi:10.1186/1471-2318-6-2
Received: 19 September 2005
Accepted: 23 January 2006
This article is available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2318/6/2
© 2006 Carusone et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0),
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
Background: Nursing home residents are frequently sent to hospital for diagnostic tests or to
receive acute health care services. These transfers are both costly and for some, associated with
increased risks. Although improved technology allows long-term care facilities to deliver more
complex health care on site, if this is to become a trend then residents and family members must
see the value of such care. This qualitative study examined resident and family member perspectives
on in situ care for pneumonia.
Methods: A qualitative descriptive study design was used. Participants were residents and family
members of residents treated for pneumonia drawn from a larger randomized controlled trial of a
clinical pathway to manage nursing home-acquired pneumonia on-site. A total of 14 in-depth
interviews were conducted. Interview data were analyzed using the editing style, described by
Miller and Crabtree, to identify key themes.
Results: Both residents and family members preferred that pneumonia be treated in the nursing
home, where possible. They both felt that caring and attention are key aspects of care which are
more easily accessible in the nursing home setting. However, residents felt that staff or doctors
should make the decision whether to hospitalize them, whereas family members wanted to be
consulted or involved in the decision-making process.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that interventions to reduce hospitalization of nursing home
residents with pneumonia are consistent with resident and family member preferences.
Background
The demand for long-term care in facilities is increasing in
response to changing demographics and social values. As
of 2000, an estimated 46 percent of Americans 65 years
old will spend time in a nursing home before they die. By
2020, the total number of older adults using nursing
home care in the United States is expected to more than
double [1].
The functional dependence and clinical complexity of
health problems that long-term care facility (LTCF) residents have are also increasing. In 1997, the United States’
National Nursing Home Survey found that 75% of elderly
nursing home residents needed help with three or more
activities of daily living (bathing, dressing, eating, transfer
from bed to chair, toileting), and that 44% had difficulty
with both bowel and bladder continence [2]. Although
Page 1 of 9
(page number not for citation purposes)
BMC Geriatrics 2006, 6:2
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2318/6/2
Table 1: Inclusion and exclusion criteria of the clinical trial*
Inclusion Criteria
Exclusion Criteria
Have 2 or more of the following signs or symptoms:
• New or increased cough
• New or increased sputum production
• Fever (>38°C)
• Pleuritic chest pain
• New or increased findings on chest examination
1. Residents not expected to live longer than 30 d (from enrolment)
2. Residents who have had a previous anaphylactic or allergic reaction to
quinolones
3. Residents who have not provided consent
4. Residents with advanced directives stating that they are not to be
transferred to hospital for treatment
*This qualitative descriptive study was nested within a much larger multi-centred clinical trial.
many LTCF residents are currently transferred to hospital
for diagnostic tests or to receive acute medical services, fiscal pressures, improved technology, and complications
associated with hospitalization suggest that more medical
care should be provided in nursing homes.
Pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract infections
(LRIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality
among nursing home residents. They are also the leading
reason for their hospitalization. One Canadian study
found that nearly one-third of all LTCF residents with
pneumonia were hospitalized [3]. Recent research suggests that residents with pneumonia at a low- to mediumlevel mortality risk may be managed safely in a LTCF for
less cost [4,5].
Some researchers have argued that the provision of health
care cannot be decontextualized from the environment in
which it is provided. As such, the locus of care is an important issue. There are also a variety of perspectives to understand in relation to this issue – specifically that of older
adults, their families, friends, and health care providers
[6]. Although the decision about where and when LTCF
residents should receive care is no longer solely in their
control, it is important to understand their preferences for
care.
Few studies have examined the care preferences of LTCF
residents and their families and most of this work has
been done with the use of surveys to assess the views of
well people in response to hypothetical situations. Two
such studies have found that nursing home residents generally prefer hospital-based care [7,8]. Kleinman [9], however, suggests that generic models of health-related
behaviors are very different from responses to specific illness episodes experienced by a person, and that the latter
are essential to understanding help-seeking behaviors for
sickness. The objective of this study was to learn if LTCF
care for pneumonia is consistent with resident and family
preferences using a qualitative descriptive study design.
Methods
This study was part of a multi-centred randomized controlled clinical trial that tested the effectiveness and utility
of using a protocol for treating nursing home-acquired
pneumonia. The protocol listed signs and symptoms of
pneumonia and directed staff to follow a treatment pathway that included criteria for deciding the appropriate
locus of care (LTCF vs. hospital). Twenty nursing homes
in southern Ontario were matched by size and one member in each pair was randomly allocated to use the clinical
pathway. The other facility continued to follow normal
care practices to diagnose and treat pneumonia. From
November 2003 to June 2004, research nurses
approached primary decision makers (residents or family
members of residents who were deemed incapable of
making informed decisions regarding their care) to participate in the qualitative study.
Sampling and recruitment
Inclusion and exclusion criteria for the clinical trial are
summarized in Table 1. After 30 days of follow up in the
clinical trial study, residents with pneumonia and family
members were invited by a clinical trial study nurse to participate in the qualitative study. Our aim was to enrol
information-rich participants, or people who can best
describe the experience under study (purposeful sampling) [10]. As a result, study nurses were asked to only
invite residents they deemed capable of remembering and
discussing care provided for a recent case of pneumonia
(residents), or family members who were most directly
involved in decision-making for residents unable to speak
about their own care. Residents and family members who
indicated they were willing to participate in this study
gave consent to have their names released to the
researcher (SCC) who then explained the study to them
prior to obtaining informed consent. Although our goal
was to recruit individuals until saturation of the main
themes was achieved, we were limited by the number of
eligible participants enrolled in the clinical trial during
the data collection period. However, a strong consensus
among participants’ views on the major topics raised during data collection was achieved.
Data collection
Data were collected by the researcher (SCC) in one-time,
individual, semi-structured interviews with residents (n =
6) and family members (n = 8). All of the resident inter-
Page 2 of 9
(page number not for citation purposes)
BMC Geriatrics 2006, 6:2
Table 2: Interview guide for residents
Diagnosis
Thinking back to when you were sick, what sort of symptoms did you
have?
Who first told you that you had pneumonia?
How did you feel when they told you that you had pneumonia?
Have you had pneumonia before?
Treatment
What sort of treatment did you receive?
How often did you see the doctor?
What could have made the care that you received better?
Quality of Care
To you, what is the most important aspect of care?
What makes you feel like you are being well taken care of?
Preferences for care
If you had a choice, where would you have preferred to receive care
(in the nursing home or in the hospital)?
Would you like to be asked where you would like to receive
treatment? Or, would you prefer the doctor or nurses to make the
decision on their own?
Differences between hospital and nursing home
What sort of differences do you see between the care that you would
receive here versus the care that you would receive in the hospital?
What would make you think that you have to go to hospital?
views were performed in one of four nursing homes. Family member interviews were performed in nursing homes,
at coffee shops, or by telephone. Interviews lasted
between 20 and 90 minutes, depending on the participants’ ability to express themselves. All but one interview
was tape recorded and transcribed verbatim for accuracy.
Data were collected in the one non-taped interview by
extensive note taking during and immediately after the
interview. Interviews focused on four themes: participants’ experience with a recent case of pneumonia, preferred locus of care for pneumonia (hospital or nursing
home), perceived dif …
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