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report must contain the sections indicated in the assignment instructions, and APA formatting standards must be followed throughout.Assignment Instructions report must contain the following sections. (Use these sections as headings in your paper.)Study Design – This is an overview section that includes information from your previous assignments. You should repeat the research question and hypotheses from your literature review assignment here, then briefly tell what type of study you would do, what type of data you would collect, and summarize how you would collect and analyze the data. Most of these points are covered in more detail in later sections.Population and Sample – This is a short section describing the population for your report, your sample, and how your sample will be selected.Variables and Measures – Describe the variables in your study. Indicate whether they are independent, dependent, moderating, or intervening. Describe the relationship between the variables. Tell how they will be measured.Data Collection Methods – Tell what kind of data you need to collect and how, where, and when you will collect the data. If you plan to use a survey or questionnaire, include a copy of that instrument in an appendix to your report. Also, include a copy of your cover letter for your survey. If you plan to interview, tell if it would be structured or unstructured and why. If it is a structured interview, include the questions you would ask in an appendix to the report.Data Analysis Methods – Describe the techniques you will use to analyze the data. Indicate why you selected those methods and why they are appropriate. You must be specific and detailed in identifying and justifying the processes and statistical tests you will use in the analysis of your data.References – Your report must contain a reference section that includes all sources in your paper. References must be in APA format.

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Evolution of Aviation
Carlos Acosta
The aviation industry is becoming more safe, efficient, and profitable globally.
Notwithstanding, there are problems that the industry go through, and as a global business, there
is a vulnerability of different elements. The industry is unique and has changed over the years to
ensure that the airlines provide good services to the customers, moved with the innovation of
technology, and remained profitable in the business (Elwell, 2008). The problem in the aviation
industry is that the future is not guaranteed unless sustainability is definite. This is seen in two
dimensions, that is, economic and environmental. The aviation industry is expected to be
sustainable, but this can be challenging for airlines that burn fuel to ensure their aircraft are
propelled. However, the aviation industry has ambitious goals ranging from capping the
emissions and being carbon-neutral to ensuring that the industry remains profitable.
Technological advancement is a major key factor in ensuring there is an improvement in the
industry (Agarwal, 2009). It is important to ensure that sustainability is maintained, regarding
profitability and the environment, since the economy is dependent on it. The issue of increasing
carbon emission due to air traffic has become an issue of concern to the passengers too. In recent
years, on top of their standard airfare, many airlines have introduced organic on-board food and
voluntary carbon offsetting as a part of ensuring sustainability.
Problem Statement and the Aim of the Study
Air travel contributes approximately 2% of global carbon emissions. This percentage is
expected to increase if the aviation industry does not implement initiatives to ensure the
conservation of the environment. Many airlines are starting to adopt eco-friendly technologies
and products to ensure sustainability. From the environmental conservation point of view, the
first solution in solving the issue of carbon emission is directly integrating green products into
the airlines’ standard airfare. Just like in other industries, it is assumed that there is a segment of
passengers in the aviation industry who are willing to pay for green products. However, only a
little research has been done to determine the green products’ demand in aviation. This paper
aims to establish the demand for green products in the aviation industry and the willingness to
pay for green products.
Literature Review
An essential driver in technology is mainly innovation. Modern airplane moving in the
aircraft task force bring with them eco-friendliness increases of 20-30% compared to the past
task force. Too much money is used for this annually. Another innovation is seen in the
improvement of sustainable biofuels. Over 1,500 commercial air travel has been energized by
possible biofuels (Walton, 2018). The test for sustainable biofuels is time-consuming as well as
costly. The complex expense is being determined by the small amounts of requests. Also, the
request is low because of the staggering expense. The governments also ensure that there is a
boost in the utilization of convenient biofuels as they have improved the situation and other
elective supplies of power. Dissemination will be moderately simple if biofuels are taken to
about 190 airports since it will cover about 80% of prospective interest.
Secondly, a foundation is a key aspect. In many circumstances, flights require to circle an
air terminal prior to being cleared to arrive or requires to reduce the speed before entering an
active airport. In such a scenario, the airship is seen to consume more fuel than expected because
the basis is unable to deal with the interest (Rhoades, 2014). There is about 12% productivity,
which could be witnessed if regulation frameworks in airport focused on the idyllic dimension.
Also, consistently that is spared, decreases fuel consumption and discharges.
Green Products
In the recent past, customers in other industries have been shifting to green products. Corporate
Social Responsibility has become a critical part of attracting and retaining customers. The issue
of increasing carbon emission has been an issue of concern to passengers who use different
airlines. To ensure environmental sustainability, different airlines have been adapting different
strategies to ensure the conservation of the environment. One of these strategies is the
introduction of organic on-board food and carbon offsetting. From the environmental
conservation point of view, the first solution in solving the issue of carbon emission is directly
integrating green products into the airlines’ standard airfare. On the other hand, the aviation
industry is characterized by customers who are price-sensitive, and the industry is a very
competitive industry. As a result of this, many airlines have decided to unbundle the products so
that the passengers can be able to purchase only the services and products that they desire. Often,
green products in airlines are taken as “supplementary services” (Wittmer & Rowley, 2014).
Studies have shown that products that have environmentally preferable features impact the
customers’ willingness to pay, intentions and choices. Most studies done on green products in the
aviation industry mainly focus on carbon offsetting.
The other aspect of sustainability is profitability. Throughout the only remaining century,
carriers have recently plowed back the initial investment. Aside from the majority of the shares
that are conveyed to the world, there is primarily annihilated a huge amount of capital. It is an
exceptionally strong and extremely intense industry. This does not mean that individuals have
not seen profits. Instability of the stocks is mainly due to different challenges that are faced in the
industry (Zhang, 2017). Additionally, a few people profit on that. Additionally, people working
in friendly conditions in the electronic equipment fitted in an aircraft create huge profits year on
year. There is an incredible pivot story in the United States where the business is presently
leading in terms of profits globally after an extremely difficult period that started with the 9.11
disaster. It is true to say that aircraft make under $6 per traveler. On about $750 billion in
income, we expect a net benefit of just $18 billion. For those of you who are great at number
juggling, you will have determined that it is only a 2.4% net revenue. It is an enhancement for
the ongoing past. What’s more, proceeding solid interest for traveler travel, in spite of financial
vulnerabilities, demonstrates that the world’s hunger for availability that no one but flying can
give is as yet developing.
Previous studies have shown that the customers in all industries are nowadays concerned
with the Corporate Social Responsibility of companies. The profitability of different airlines in
the future is therefore likely to be determined by the airlines’ commitment to environmental
conservation and sustainability.
Research Questions
Is there a demand for green products in the aviation industry?
Are the air passengers willing to pay for green products?
Theoretical Framework
The potential green products will be investigated through analyzing internet searches,
corporate social responsibility reports, surveys and informal interviews with managers of
airlines. Product bundle prices will be estimated by comparing interviews and existing products.
A range of stakeholders has advocated for carbon offsets as one of the useful means to tackle the
issue of climate impact by air travel. The appeal of air transport will be tested through two
attribute levels; transport in a minivan or a carbon-free minivan. Other variables will include the
passenger’s interest in purchasing sustainable travel pack and organic meals. The willingness of
the passengers to pay extra money for green products will be tested. The Adaptive Choice-Based
Conjoint Analysis (ACBC) will be applied. The ACBC mimics the processes of decision-making
that influence choices in real-world as closely as possible. ACBC adapt choice experiment
design to the particular preferences of every individual respondent. In this method, it is assumed
that people make choices that are complex by creating a consideration set, and then they choose
an option from that set.
Just like in other industries, air passengers will be willing to pay for green products in the
aviation industry.
Agarwal, R. K. (2009). Sustainable (Green) Aviation: Challenges and Opportunities. Technology
Analysis and Strategic Management.
Elwell, D. (2008, August 1). Sustainable aviation: Managing the challenge of growth.
International Airport Review.
Guimarans, D., Arias, P., Tomasella, M., & Wu, C.-L. (2019). A Review of Sustainability in
Aviation: A Multidimensional Perspective. Sustainable Transportation and Smart
Logistics, pp. 91-121.
Rhoades, D. (2014). Evolution of International Aviation. London: Routledge.
Walton, J. (2018, June 15). Finding renewable and sustainable solutions for aviation. Neste.
Zhang, B. (2017, October 11). 6 ways the future of flying will be amazing. Business Insider.
Wittmer, A., & Rowley, E. (2014). Customer value of purchasable supplementary services: the
case of a European full network carrier’s economy class. Journal of Air Transport

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