Hello these are the requirements for my essay. I will link the provided 4 sources and will need one outside source. MLA format. I am going to link everything the professor gave me for more information. Including the essay outline format. Thank you. Let me know if you have any questions.The Distracted Boyfriend Who Took Over the Internet Is Deemed Sexist in Sweden In Defense of Photoshop: Why Retouching Isn’t As Evil As Everyone Thinks The U.K. just banned sexist ads — should America follow? Forcing Kids To Stick To Gender Roles Can Actually Be Harmful To Their HealthIntroduce the topic and discuss the general context for the texts we read for this unit (i.e. problems with current advertising, the proposal for advertising restrictions in the U.S., etc). Briefly discuss the two argumentative articles we read—what are their main arguments? Enter the conversation. Use the majority of your paper to make an argument about whether or not advertising restrictions would be helpful/doable in the United States, and explain your reasoning. Support your arguments with one of the texts we read as a class and an outside text of your own. You are also required to use one advertising image to justify your argument. Conclude by proposing what exactly the US should do next in terms of advertising (even if it’s nothing at all).
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ESSAY 2: JOINING THE CONVERSATION
For our second unit, we focus on gender stereotyping found in advertisements and
texts that talk about whether or not some type of advertising restrictions in the U.S.
are necessary or even realistic. For this paper, you will join the conversation on this
topic, making an argument either for or against some sort of advertising restrictions in
the United States. Your paper should:
1. Introduce the topic and discuss the general context for the texts we read for this
unit (i.e. problems with current advertising, the proposal for advertising
restrictions in the U.S., etc).
2. Briefly discuss the two argumentative articles we read—what are their main
3. Enter the conversation. Use the majority of your paper to make an argument
about whether or not advertising restrictions would be helpful/doable in the
United States, and explain your reasoning.
4. Support your arguments with one of the texts we read as a class and an outside
text of your own. You are also required to use one advertising image to justify
5. Conclude by proposing what exactly the US should do next in terms of
advertising (even if it’s nothing at all).
Your final essay portfolio should include a copy of your outline and rough draft along
with two completed peer review worksheets.
MLA format. This requires: Times New Roman size 12 font, double spacing, 1 inch
margins, appropriate heading and page numbers, correct in-text citations, and a
Works Cited page.
At least one outside source that you will find on your own.
At least one advertising image that you will find on your own.
At least 5 full pages (this means to the bottom of the page), not including Works Cited
Printed and stapled
Rough draft due: Monday, March 25th
Final portfolio due: Monday, April 1st
Strategies, Appeals, Rebuttals, Assumptions and Implications
Strategies are tactical choices authors make when crafting language to have a persuasive effect
on readers. They are ways of using language to get readers’ attention, engagement, and
agreement. One can identify strategic choices in almost any element of a text, from the choice
of title and opening sentence, to the way an author organizes her text, addresses the reader,
frames an issue, deals with opposing views, or makes particular use of style and tone. We can
look at small tactical decisions, such as word choice, or large tactical decisions, such as how
claims are sequenced. Often, by examining patterns at the “micro” level we can identify largescale strategies. For example, we may find that many small strategic choices in a text help make
the author seem credible and trustworthy, and thus advance the author’s ethos. The particular
way the author addresses the audience, creates a persona that seems fair-minded and
reasonable, presents a wide-range of evidence, cites respected authorities, and treats opposing
views, are all strategic choices that build ethos. Or imagine an author addressing a hostile,
resistant audience. We might notice that the main claim is deferred until the end of the
argument, in order to have more time to establish a connection with the audience and set the
stage for a claim they might at first reject. We might also notice the text spends a lot of time
establishing common ground between writer and audience, and addresses the many objections
a resistant audience is likely to have. The author might include a set of analogies and “frames”
that take familiar ideas and values shared by the audience, and use them to “package” the
controversial claim. All of these lower-level strategic choices contribute to a “high-level”
strategy, namely overcoming the natural resistance the audience has to the author’s argument.
Analyzing strategic choices can help prepare us to examine rhetorical appeals (ethos, pathos
and logos). Sometimes, when students first try analyzing appeals they jump straight from the
appeal to the first example that seems to fit. For example, the student may write that the
author establishes ethos and thus credibility because she cites respected sources. But most
serious authors try to cite respected sources, so this does not tell us much. This does not help
us understand the specifics of what an author does to appear knowledgeable, trustworthy and
credible. However, by looking at strategic choices we can build to a more sophisticated,
detailed analysis of appeals.
Analyzing strategies takes practice. At first it may seem quite difficult, but the more you do it,
the easier it gets. If an author addresses a topic you are unfamiliar with, or writes for a highly
specialized audience, it can be very hard to identify strategies. The same is true of watching
sports. Sports commentators will often talk about the tactics and strategies teams are using (or
should use). When watching sports I am familiar with – such as tennis, cricket and rugby – I
understand how the players make particular strategic choices at both the micro and macro level
(focusing on defense when ahead, or assigning more players to guard a particularly dangerous
player on the opposing team). I will note when the cricket captain removes the fast bowler and
replaces him with a spin bowler who specializes in “googlies,” or balls that weave impossibly
through the air, and bounce in exactly the opposite direction a batsman expects. By contrast,
when I first started watching American football, I was completely unable to identify strategies.
It seemed the enormous men in helmets and padding at the front of the line would pat each
other furiously then collapse on each other, and entire teams seemed to come on and off the
field at random moments. However, after learning more about the game, I can now see the
strategies adopted by coaches and players (I usually do this while cheering the Steelers and
waving my beloved “terrible towel.”)
When exploring strategies it is useful to ask why a particular textual element was included, how it was
presented, and what persuasive effects were likely intended. You could consider alternative strategic
choices, and think about how they would work differently. It might be useful to consider what would
happen if the element or strategy were not there– what difference would it make to the argument?
When discussing rhetorical strategies, try to do the following:
1. Identify the particular strategy or tactic
2. Describe how it works
3. Describe why it is used – what purpose does it accomplish?
4. Include discussion of how this strategy helps the author develop and support the argument.
Remember that any aspect of the language an author uses can be strategic. Thus word choice,
sentence structure, style, tone, organization, and figurative language can operate strategically.
Any element of an argument can also operate strategically. How an author addresses her
audience, constructs claims, evidence, rebuttals, definitions, metaphors, analogies,
organization, style and tone can involve strategy and tactics.
In a later section on close reading we will explore strategies in more detail. For now, look over
the list below which describes some textual elements that are often used strategically.
Authorities or “big names.” Frequently an author will quote from a famous person or wellknown authority on the topic being discussed.
• How does this appeal to authority build trust in her argument that the consensus can be
• How does this appeal tap into assumptions about scientific method
Comparison and contrast. Discusses similarities and differences.
• Does the text contain two or more related subjects?
How are they alike? different?
What is the effect of the comparison or contrast – how does it help persuade the
How does this comparison further the argument or a claim?
Definition. When authors define certain words, these definitions are often constructed for a
specific audience and specific persuasive purpose.
• Who is the intended audience?
• How has the speaker or author chosen to define these terms for the audience?
• What effect might this definition have on the audience, or how does this definition help
further the argument?
Description. Details sensory perceptions relating to a person, place, or thing.
• Does a person, place, or thing play a prominent role in the text?
• Does the tone, pacing, or overall purpose of the essay benefit from sensory details?
• What emotions might these details evoke in the audience? (pathos)
• How does this description help the author further the argument?
Division and classification. The way an author divides concepts, categories, issues or sides in a
Exemplification. Provides examples or cases in point.
• What examples, facts, statistics, cases in point, personal experiences, or interview
questions does the author add to illustrate claims or illuminate the argument?
• What effect might these have on the reader?
Ethos. Aristotle’s term ethos refers to the credibility, character or personality of the speaker or
author or someone else connected to the argument. Ethos brings up questions of ethics and
trust between the speaker or author and the audience. How is the speaker or author building
credibility for the argument? How and why is the speaker or author trying to get the audience
to trust her or him? Aristotle says that a speaker builds credibility by demonstrating that he or
she is fair, knowledgeable about a topic, trustworthy, and considerate.
• What specifically does the author do to obtain the reader’s trust? How does he or she
show fairness? Understanding of the topic? Trustworthy? Considerate of the reader’s
• How does she construct credibility for her argument?
Identification. This is rhetorician Kenneth Burke’s term for the act of “identifying” with another
person or group who shares your values or beliefs. Identification refers to the ways that
authors develops a rapport with the audience, and establishes shared values, beliefs,
experiences, attitudes and cultural norms. Authors may use style, narrative, metaphor, analogy,
cultural/historical reference and other linguistics devices.
• How does the author build a connection between himself or herself and the audience?
Logos. Loosely defined, logos refers to the use of logic, reason, facts, statistics, data, and
numbers. Very often, logos seems familiar and tangible, so much more real and “true” than
other rhetorical strategies that it does not seem like a persuasive strategy at all.
• How and why does the author or speaker chose logos?
• How does the author show there are good reasons to support his or her argument?
• What kinds of evidence does he or she use?
Metadiscourse. Metadiscourse can be described as language about language (or discourse
about discourse – hence the “meta.”) It announces to the reader what the writer is doing, often
helping the reader to recognize the author’s purpose or plan. (Example: “In my paper I argue
X, and my argument consists of three main claims…First, A. Second, B . . .”) Metadiscourse can
be used both to announce the overall project or purpose of the text and to announce its
argument. It also provides signposts along the way, guiding the reader to what will come next
and showing how that is connected to what has come before.
• Metadiscourse can signal the tone the author wants to convey. What is the author’s
voice in this paper? How does she enter in and guide the reader through the text?
• What role does she adopt? What voice does she use?
Metaphors, analogies, similes. An analogy compares two parallel terms or situations in which
the traits of one situation are argued to be similar to another—sometimes one relatively firm
and concrete, and the other less familiar and concrete. This allows the author to use concrete,
easily understood ideas, to clarify a less obvious point.
Similarly, metaphors and similes assign help an author frame the argument, to pay attention to
some elements of a situation and ignore others or to assign the characteristics of one thing to
• What two things are being compared?
• How does this comparison help an audience view the argument in a new way? How
does this frame shape the argument?
Narration. Recounts an event.
• Is the narrator trying to report or recount an anecdote, an experience, or an event? Is it
telling a story?
• How does this narrative illustrate or clarify the claim or argument?
• What effect might this story have on the audience?
• How does this narrative further the argument?
Pathos. Pathos refers to feelings. The author or speaker wants her audience to feel the same
emotions she is feeling, whether or not they agree on the actual topic. That way, because they
feel the same emotions, they are more likely to agree with the author later on.
• What specific emotions does the author evoke?
• How does she do it?
How does the author use these emotions as a tool to persuade the audience?
Prolepsis/Rebuttals. Anticipating objections or questions the reader may have and
demonstrating that they can be addressed or resolved. (Prolepsis is very similar to rebuttal, and
some writers consider it a particular kind of rebuttal.)
• Anticipating objections or questions a reader may have can help build ethos as it
suggests the writer is fair-minded, aware of opposing views, and knowledgeable.
• Rebuttals/prolepsis can be used to engage the reader, show that the author
understands his readers, and walk the reader through the author’s reasoning.
• Authors can lessen the likelihood of disagreement by anticipating opposition and
introducing it within the text. Rebuttals/prolepsis can be used to “inoculate” readers
against opposing views.
Rhetorical question – A question (usually) designed to have one answer and to lead the reader
to that answer. It may be used to leads the reader into a position rather than stating it
explicitly. Rhetorical questions can be used to create a conversational tone and invite
involvement in the text, and they can be used to frame an issue in a particular way.
• What is the most obvious answer to this question?
• Why is it important to have the reader answer this question? How does it help the
author persuade the audience?
Transitional questions – Lead the reader into a new subject area or area of argument. These
are different from rhetorical questions as they are meant primarily to change the topic.
• What role do these questions play? How do these questions lead the direction of the
• How is this helpful for the reader?
Structure and Organization
It is important to consider the organization of information and strategies in any text.
• How does this structure or organization help strength the argument?
• What headings or titles does the author use? How do these strengthen the argument?
Write an example body paragraph with the following moves:
1. Introduce the strategy you’ll be discussing
2. Describe/paraphrase or quote the strategy
3. Analyze your strategy—describe how it works to persuade the
intended audience, why the author used it
4. Evaluate the strategy—say whether or not this strategy is likely to
persuade the audience and explain your reasoning
ESSAY OUTLINE SAMPLE TEMPLATE
Introduce the topic, describe context, introduce texts being
State the thesis – explain your argument and the main points
that will help you develop it.
1. First Point, Topic sentence, Explanation
a. Supporting evidence (examples, quotes, etc.)
b. Supporting evidence
2. Second Point
3. Third Point
Summarize your final thoughts. Explore the significance of your
analysis—what did you learn from writing this paper/analyzing these
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