Hello, I am a teacher assistant who has a discussion section which I use to teach students and explain in details material that the professor went over in class. half of the academic quarter passed, now I need to write an assignment for the board explaining to them what my educational plan is for the second half of the quarter (the remaining 5 weeks), and how students will benefit from this plan. The paper should reflect how my implementations helped, and will help students to learn. Please make sure to use ALL the sources provided as those are material we are expected to use to write this paper.
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Consider: What can you do as an IA to engage your
students in productive and equitable learning?
Assessment of self relative to others
 Festinger, L., 1954.
● In your groups (assign 1 person to be a reporter), brainstorm and come up with answers
to these questions:
1. Identify a social comparison that could occur in your classroom.
2. What are 2 positive ways and 2 negative ways this could impact learning (such as
participation or performance)?
Social comparisons affect learning
Students that compare their abilities against classmates who get good
grades tend to have better academic performance 
Social comparison concern (feeling inferior in knowledge and participation)
negatively impacts students’ retention in the course, and their final grade 
 Blanton, H., 1999.
 Micari, M. & Drane, D., 2011.
Interventions for social comparison concern
10 week course, 33 small groups, survey:
Social Comparison Concern Questions
I sometimes leave
feeling like I am the only one who
doesn’t understand the material
I feel different from other people in
If I made a mistake in front of others
in the group, I would feel
 Micari, M., Pazos, P. 2014.
How can you reduce social comparison concern?
Design a growth mindset statement or intervention to reduce
social comparison concern. Submit to padlet through the link
I sometimes leave the workshop feeling
like I am the only one who doesn’t
understand the material well.
If I made a mistake in front of others in the
group, I would feel embarrassed.
I feel different from other people in this
What other strategies have you used in your classrooms to
reduce social comparison concern?
• We all have different identities and these can affect
how we learn.
• Social comparison can positively or negatively
• Growth mindsets can be used to overcome potential
challenges of social comparison in the classroom.
The different teaching strategies in
Your lead facilitators
Please feel free to email us with your comments
Justin Shaffer Ph.D. ([email protected])
Christa Trexler, Ph.D ([email protected])
1. Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human
relations, 7(2), 117-140.
2. Blanton, H. (1999). When better-than-others compare upward: choice of
comparison and comparative evaluation as independent predictors of
academic performance. J Pers Soc Psychol, 76, 420-430.
3. Micari, M., Drane, D. (2011). Intimidation in small learning groups: The roles
of social comparison concern, comfort, and individual characteristics in
student academic outcomes. Act Learn Higher Ed, 12(3), 175-187.
4. Micari, M., Pazos, P. (2014). Worrying about what others think: A socialcomparison concern intervention in small learning groups. Act Learn Higher
A tale of two instructors: Different student outcomes
Two physics instructors in small courses or sections
Same inquiry-based curriculum with interactive learning activities
p < 0.05 Puntambekar, Stylianou, and Goldstein (2007) Journal of Learning Sciences 16: 81-130 BGGN 500 BISP 195 | 14 A tale of two instructors: Interactions with students What might the two instructors be doing differently? Puntambekar, Stylianou, and Goldstein (2007) Journal of Learning Sciences 16: 81-130 BGGN 500 BISP 195 | 15 A tale of two instructors: Interactions with students Section 1 Section 2 Better student outcomes Not as good student outcomes Puntambekar, Stylianou, and Goldstein (2007) Journal of Learning Sciences 16: 81-130 BGGN 500 BISP 195 | 16 Brainstorm: What can we do as TAs or tutors? First think and write on your own: Think and write Based on what we have discussed so far, what could you do as an IA in your discussion or lab section to engage your students in productive and inclusive learning? When everyone in your group is done writing: 1. Come to consensus for your ideas 2. Discuss and explain why you think some Pair and discuss strategies might be more effective BGGN 500 BISP 195 | 17 Resources on TritonEd BGGN 500 BISP 195 | 18 Course announcements BISP 195 • Last reflection due on TritonEd BGGN 500 • Last reflection due on TritonEd • Journal club next week: Please read paper before our seminar and be prepared for discussion! BGGN 500 BISP 195 | 19 Before we go Your full name and PID 1. Names of people in your group Write down one thing that you learned today that you plan to implement in your discussion or laboratory section 2. Explain why you think that your plan will be effective in helping students learn 3. Write down any other questions that you may have about learning, teaching, and your section Turn in the index card for contribution credit BGGN 500 BISP 195 | 20 Professional ethics and learning cycles 1. Pick up a color index card in the order of Hometown Favorite course What you would like to be called (preferred pronouns, any other info) the stack 2. Make a name tent using the index card 3. Sit in groups of 2-4 with the same color Favorite food Adjective your best friend would use to describe you Plan for today 2 Biology Teaching knowledge strategies 3 Metacognition: Thinking about thinking and thinking about learning 1 Evidence and research BGGN 500 BISP 195 | Week 2 | 2 Word association: What comes to mind? What are some words that come to mind when you hear the word integrity? What are some words that come to mind when you hear the phrase academic integrity? BGGN 500 BISP 195 | Week 2 | 3 How do we define academic integrity? The courage to be honest, respectful, responsible, fair, and trustworthy even when tempted not to be 1. Start in groups of 2-4 people with the same color name tag 2. Discuss what students can do to uphold academic integrity in relation to your color item 3. Discuss what you as instructional assistants can do to uphold academic integrity in relation to your color item Fundamental Values of Academic Integrity, International Center for Academic Integrity BGGN 500 BISP 195 | Week 2 | 4 How do we define academic integrity? The courage to be honest, respectful, responsible, fair, and trustworthy even when tempted not to be 1. Form new groups with 4-5 different colors 2. Discuss what students can do to uphold academic integrity in relation to all five color items 3. Discuss what you as instructional assistants can do to uphold academic integrity in relation to all five color items Fundamental Values of Academic Integrity, International Center for Academic Integrity BGGN 500 BISP 195 | Week 2 | 5 How do we define academic integrity? Students Instructional assistants Honest Respectful Responsible Fair Trustworthy BGGN 500 BISP 195 | Week 2 | 6 What to do when we see potential violations? Action mnemonic for instructional assistants • Assist your instructor in understanding and enacting the Policy • Ensure you know what the Instructor considers academic misconduct • Inform your students class and assignment specific rules • Observe and report suspected or even suspicious cases of misconduct • Use your best judgment • And sometimes, you have to know you’ve done your best Tricia Bertram-Gallant, Academic Integrity Office, UC San Diego BGGN 500 BISP 195 | Week 2 | 7 What to do when we see potential violations? Instructors must report cases of suspected academic misconduct to the AI Office • Instructional assistants are critical actors in this since they are usually the first to identify cheating The Policy exists to support faculty and ensure due process for students The entire infrastructure exists so we can: • Leverage the situation as a teachable moment • Create a culture of integrity where cheating is the exception and integrity is the norm Tricia Bertram-Gallant, Academic Integrity Office, UC San Diego BGGN 500 BISP 195 | Week 2 | 8 Minute to “mend” it: Sexual harassment prevention for IAs 1. A student routinely compliments you about your appearance, hair, clothes, and body. Is this sexual harassment? 2. A student in your (discussion or lab) section emails you a very personal and intimate message stating “I want to [blank] you.” What should you do? 3. Students in your (discussion or lab) section like to go to Rock Bottom for cold ones on Fridays after section. They invite you to join them. Can you go? Should you go? 4. A student in your (discussion or lab) section comes to office hours but spends the whole time talking about their love life and other personal problems. S/he also asks for your advice. “Do you think I should break up?” or “What should I do now that my parents are getting divorced?” How do you respond? 5. Your course faculty invites you to a concert at House of Blues. You are under the impression that other IAs are also going to the concert and sitting together. You agree to go, then you realize that the course faculty does not intend to invite any other IAs. Just you. What would you do? 6. You notice that some of the students in your (discussion or lab) section use the expression “That’s so gay” very often. What would you say? ophd.ucsd.edu BGGN 500 BISP 195 | Week 2 | 9 Where to go Sexual assault CARE at SARC, Student Services Center, Suite 500 858-534-5793, [email protected] • CARE staff are confidential Bias, harassment, and discrimination ophd.ucsd.edu Assault or other crime Police department 858-534-HELP (4357) or 911 On TritonEd BGGN 500 BISP 195 | Week 2 | 10 5E learning cycle http://bscs.org/bscs-5e-instructional-model Engage Integrity vs. academic integrity Explore Jigsaw activity Explain Report out and mini-lecture Elaborate Application to sexual harassment Evaluate Collect reflection writing at the end BGGN 500 BISP 195 | Week 2 | 11 5E learning cycle * * Science Educator (2007) 16: 44-50 | * p < 0.05 BGGN 500 BISP 195 | Week 2 | 12 Teaching strategies that we used today Strategy Learning communities Inclusive classroom Name tags Encourage community building Help diverse students get to know one another Jig-saw Encourage collaboration Students start with different “expertise” and share Random calling Engage students constantly No preference based on instructor’s implicit biases Scaffold Provide steps for students to Does not assume students can develop their own thinking guess what you are looking for Gallery walk Learn from one another’s ideas Everyone can have a voice Learning cycle Promote learning Promote inclusive learning BGGN 500 BISP 195 | Week 2 | 13 Teaching strategies that we used today Strategy Discussion Laboratory Name tags Early in the quarter and Early in the quarter and throughout the quarter throughout the quarter For different parts of a problem When students analyze data or a challenging problem especially complex ones Any time you ask questions or Any time you ask questions or are looking for participation are looking for participation Scaffold All the time All the time Gallery walk Students comment on one Students comment on one another’s solutions to problems another’s data or figures All the time All the time Jig-saw Random calling Learning cycle BGGN 500 BISP 195 | Week 2 | 14 Resources on TritonEd BGGN 500 BISP 195 | Week 2 | 15 Before we go Your full name and PID 1. Names of people in your group Write down one thing that you learned today that you plan to implement in your discussion or laboratory section 2. Explain why you think that your plan will be effective in helping students learn 3. Write down one thing that you would like to learn more or have questions about what we discussed here today Turn in the index card for contribution credit BGGN 500 BISP 195 | Week 2 | 16 CBE—Life Sciences Education Vol. 6, 251–258, Winter 2007 Feature Approaches to Biology Teaching and Learning Cultural Competence in the College Biology Classroom Kimberly Tanner* and Deborah Allen† *Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132; and †Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 INTRODUCTION Your words and actions can make a difference. (Center for the Integration of Research, Teaching, and Learning, University of Wisconsin) We would, of course, all like to think of ourselves as being “culturally competent.” Any biologist looking at these two words themselves would rightly presume that they understand the phrase. General definitions of the two words are as follows: Cultural: of or relating to the arts and manners that a group favors; denoting or deriving from or distinctive of the ways of living built up by a group of people; of or relating to the shared knowledge and values of a society (www.dictionary.com) Competence: adequacy; possession of required skill, knowledge, qualification, or capacity (www. dictionary.com) As a general phrase, “cultural competence” can often conjure for the unfamiliar reader a vision of a person who is fair, just, and open, a person who is nice, someone who is a good person at heart. Cultural competence, however, goes far beyond the everyday meanings that its component words invoke, and it is an active area of scholarship and professional development, especially in the training of K–12 education and health care professionals (Diller and Moule, 2005; Klump and Nelson, 2005; National Center for Cultural Competence [NCCC], 2007). In fact, one would be hard pressed to find a medical, pharmacy, or nursing school or a precollege teacher preparation program that does not devote significant curricular time to developing cultural competence among their trainees. Yet, the term cultural competence is rarely found within the vocabulary of most practicing biologists and university-level biology teachers, and its relevance to biology may seem questionable. However, given the limited progress that has been made in diversifying the sciences DOI: 10.1187/cbe.07– 09 – 0086 Address correspondence to: Deborah Allen ([email protected]). as a discipline, the time has come for us to consider the implications and importance of cultural competence within the biological sciences, especially in the context of our teaching in classrooms and laboratories. So, what is cultural competence? Why should biologists care about it? What are common pitfalls that reveal our lack of cultural competence? And what are some teaching strategies that we can all use to continue to increase our cultural competence? Here, we attempt to address these questions and to connect readers in the biological sciences with insights from other disciplines that may aid them in striving for cultural competence in their own college or university classrooms and laboratories. INTRODUCING CULTURAL COMPETENCE: WHAT IS IT? The term cultural competence is by most accounts less than two decades old, and a multitude of formal definitions can be found, depending on whether it is being discussed in the realm of K–12 education, clinical practice, or workforce diversity. A general definition that would seem to apply to most any realm of human interaction is as follows: Cultural competence is a term used for the ability of people of one culture to understand, communicate, operate, and provide effective services to people of another given culture, or in other words, crossculturally. The term is fairly recent but has become widely used in education, social work, and healthcare regulatory compliance within the United States, to discuss acceptance of persons from an array of diverse backgrounds and cultures. (Wikipedia, 2007) Specifically in education, cultural competence is highly focused on how effective a teacher is for those students who do not share the same personal characteristics or the same cultural background of that teacher. These characteristics include gender, ethnicity, religion, country of origin, or sexual orientation, to name a few. For some biologists, the concept that one’s own cultural background ever influences one’s teaching may come as a © 2007 by The American Society for Cell Biology Downloaded from http://www.lifescied.org/ by guest on October 15, 2015 251 K. Tanner and D. Allen surprise. In particular, for those (including us) who come from the dominant culture of privilege in this country, that is, the white, upper middle class, it can be hard to even recognize your own culture, because it is so pervasive and dominant. In her book Other People’s Children: Cultural Conflict in the Classroom, Lisa Delpit eloquently describes and challenges the culture-blindness that is pervasive in our society: We all carry worlds in our heads, and those worlds are decidedly different. We educators set out to teach, but how can we reach the worlds of others when we don’t even know they exist? Indeed, many of us don’t even realize that our own worlds exist only in our heads and in the cultural institutions we have built to support them. It is as if we are in the middle of a great computer-generated reality game, but the “realities” displayed in various participants’ minds are entirely different terrains. (Delpit, 1985) Given that we each have cultural boundaries and often cultural blindness, then the role of teachers, in any context, is to escape those constraints and to build awareness of their own cultural assumptions, stereotypes, and expectations of what is the norm, so that they can effectively teach those who do not share their own cultural terrain. In their 2005 book Cultural Competence: A Primer for Educators, Jerry Diller and Jean Moule state: Put most simply, it (cultural competence) is the ability to successfully teach students who come from different cultures other than your own. It entails mastering certain personal and interpersonal awarenesses and sensitivities, learning specific bodies of cultural knowledge, and mastering a set of skills that, taken together, underlie effective crosscultural teaching. (Diller and Moule, 2005) Regardless of the professional context in which cultural competence is being considered, there is widespread agreement that cultural competence is acquired neither quickly nor casually, but rather requires an intentional examination of one’s thoughts and behaviors in the classroom throughout one’s career (National Mental Health Information Center, 2007). All of these definitions of cultural competence emphasize the role of awareness, reflection, and continued change in striving toward cultural competence. In fact, the first step toward becoming culturally competent is realizing that you probably aren’t. So, how might one recognize what cultural competence looks like in practice, specifically in the context of teaching? In their 2005 report Research-based Resources: Cultural Competency of Schools and Teachers in Relation to Student Success, Jennifer Klump and Steve Nelson from the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory describe six common teaching approaches identified through research studies that are used by culturally competent and responsive educators (see Table 1, adapted from Klump and Nelson, 2005). The first three of these teaching approaches— engaging students in active and hands-on learning, developing a climate of cooperation and community in the classroom, and knowing students and differentiating instruction to meet their needs— could be considered just good science teaching practices, ones that have been highlighted by many biology educators, including ourselves (e.g., Tann ... Purchase answer to see full attachment