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Please draft a video script and storyboard for a digital marketing assignment.Select any company or brand, and show how social media marketing can be used to create better value for their customers. Note: It is okay to choose an international brand but it should be available in Australia.The focus is on better value so first analyse what the business or brand are currently doing, and then use the theories to come up with a way that this particular business can do better than what they are currently doing. I have attached some theories and requirement blow please check it before you begin. Thank you Attached is detailed requirements.


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Business Horizons (2010) 53, 59—68
Users of the world, unite! The challenges and
opportunities of Social Media
Andreas M. Kaplan *, Michael Haenlein
ESCP Europe, 79 Avenue de la République, F-75011 Paris, France
Social Media;
User Generated
Web 2.0;
Social networking sites;
Virtual worlds
Abstract The concept of Social Media is top of the agenda for many business
executives today. Decision makers, as well as consultants, try to identify ways in
which firms can make profitable use of applications such as Wikipedia, YouTube,
Facebook, Second Life, and Twitter. Yet despite this interest, there seems to be very
limited understanding of what the term ‘‘Social Media’’ exactly means; this article
intends to provide some clarification. We begin by describing the concept of Social
Media, and discuss how it differs from related concepts such as Web 2.0 and User
Generated Content. Based on this definition, we then provide a classification of Social
Media which groups applications currently subsumed under the generalized term into
more specific categories by characteristic: collaborative projects, blogs, content
communities, social networking sites, virtual game worlds, and virtual social worlds.
Finally, we present 10 pieces of advice for companies which decide to utilize Social
# 2009 Kelley School of Business, Indiana University. All rights reserved.
1. The specter of Social Media
As of January 2009, the online social networking
application Facebook registered more than 175
million active users. To put that number in perspective, this is only slightly less than the population of
Brazil (190 million) and over twice the population of
Germany (80 million)! At the same time, every
minute, 10 hours of content were uploaded to the
video sharing platform YouTube. And, the image
hosting site Flickr provided access to over 3 billion
photographs, making the world-famous Louvre
* Corresponding author.
E-mail addresses: [email protected] (A.M. Kaplan),
[email protected] (M. Haenlein).
Museum’s collection of 300,000 objects seem tiny
in comparison.
According to Forrester Research, 75% of Internet
surfers used ‘‘Social Media’’ in the second quarter of
2008 by joining social networks, reading blogs, or
contributing reviews to shopping sites; this represents a significant rise from 56% in 2007. The growth
is not limited to teenagers, either; members of
Generation X, now 35—44 years old, increasingly
populate the ranks of joiners, spectators, and critics. It is therefore reasonable to say that Social
Media represent a revolutionary new trend that
should be of interest to companies operating in
online space–—or any space, for that matter.
Yet, not overly many firms seem to act comfortably in a world where consumers can speak so freely
0007-6813/$ — see front matter # 2009 Kelley School of Business, Indiana University. All rights reserved.
with each other and businesses have increasingly
less control over the information available about
them in cyberspace. Today, if an Internet user types
the name of any leading brand into the Google
search, what comes up among the top five results
typically includes not only the corporate webpage,
but also the corresponding entry in the online
encyclopedia Wikipedia. Here, for example, customers can read that the 2007 model of Hasbro’s
Easy-Bake Oven may lead to serious burns on children’s hands and fingers due to a poorly-designed
oven door, and that the Firestone Tire and Rubber
Company has been accused of using child labor in its
Liberian rubber factory. Historically, companies
were able to control the information available about
them through strategically placed press announcements and good public relations managers. Today,
however, firms have been increasingly relegated to
the sidelines as mere observers, having neither the
knowledge nor the chance–—or, sometimes, even the
right–—to alter publicly posted comments provided
by their customers. Wikipedia, for example, expressly forbids the participation of firms in its online
Such an evolution may not be surprising. After all,
the Internet started out as nothing more than a giant
Bulletin Board System (BBS) that allowed users to
exchange software, data, messages, and news with
each other. The late 1990s saw a popularity surge in
homepages, whereby the Average Joe could share
information about his private life; today’s equivalent
would be the weblog, or blog. The era of corporate
web pages and e-commerce started relatively recently with the launch of Amazon and eBay in
1995, and got a right ticking-off only 6 years later
when the dot-com bubble burst in 2001. The current
trend toward Social Media can therefore be seen as an
evolution back to the Internet’s roots, since it retransforms the World Wide Web to what it was
initially created for: a platform to facilitate information exchange between users. But does that mean
that Social Media is just old wine in new bottles?
Probably not! As we will delve into further, the
technical advances that have been made over the
past 20 years now enable a form of virtual content
sharing that is fundamentally different from, and
more powerful than, the BBS of the late 1970s.
This article discusses the challenges and opportunities that emerge from this evolution for firms, and
provides structure to better understand the rapidly
evolving field of Social Media. We begin by providing a
definition and classification of Social Media by looking
at their historical roots, technical specificities, and
differences from other entities such as Web 2.0 and
User Generated Content. We then focus on six
types of Social Media–—collaborative projects, blogs,
A.M. Kaplan, M. Haenlein
content communities, social networking sites, virtual
game worlds, and virtual social worlds–—and present
ways in which companies can efficiently make use of
these applications. Based on this analysis, we then
derive a set of 10 recommendations companies
should follow when thinking about developing their
own Social Media strategy, be it with respect to these
aforementioned types or other applications which
might emerge in the future.
2. What is Social Media–—And what is it
As highlighted, the idea behind Social Media is far
from groundbreaking. Nevertheless, there seems to
be confusion among managers and academic researchers alike as to what exactly should be included under this term, and how Social Media differ from
the seemingly-interchangeable related concepts of
Web 2.0 and User Generated Content. It therefore
makes sense to take a step back and provide insight
regarding where Social Media come from and what
they include.
By 1979, Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis from Duke
University had created the Usenet, a worldwide
discussion system that allowed Internet users to
post public messages. Yet, the era of Social Media
as we understand it today probably started about 20
years earlier, when Bruce and Susan Abelson
founded ‘‘Open Diary,’’ an early social networking
site that brought together online diary writers into
one community. The term ‘‘weblog’’ was first used
at the same time, and truncated as ‘‘blog’’ a year
later when one blogger jokingly transformed the
noun ‘‘weblog’’ into the sentence ‘‘we blog.’’ The
growing availability of high-speed Internet access
further added to the popularity of the concept,
leading to the creation of social networking sites
such as MySpace (in 2003) and Facebook (in 2004).
This, in turn, coined the term ‘‘Social Media,’’ and
contributed to the prominence it has today. The
most recent addition to this glamorous grouping
has been so-called ‘‘virtual worlds’’: computerbased simulated environments inhabited by threedimensional avatars. Perhaps the best known virtual
world is that of Linden Lab’s Second Life (Kaplan &
Haenlein, 2009c).
Although the list of the aforementioned applications may give some idea about what is meant by
Social Media, a formal definition of the term first
requires drawing a line to two related concepts that
are frequently named in conjunction with it: Web
2.0 and User Generated Content. Web 2.0 is a term
that was first used in 2004 to describe a new way in
which software developers and end-users started to
Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media
utilize the World Wide Web; that is, as a platform
whereby content and applications are no longer
created and published by individuals, but instead
are continuously modified by all users in a participatory and collaborative fashion. While applications
such as personal web pages, Encyclopedia Britannica
Online, and the idea of content publishing belong to
the era of Web 1.0, they are replaced by blogs, wikis,
and collaborative projects in Web 2.0. Although Web
2.0 does not refer to any specific technical update of
the World Wide Web, there is a set of basic functionalities that are necessary for its functioning. Among
them are Adobe Flash (a popular method for adding
animation, interactivity, and audio/video streams to
web pages), RSS (Really Simple Syndication, a family
of web feed formats used to publish frequently
updated content, such as blog entries or news headlines, in a standardized format), and AJAX (Asynchronous Java Script, a technique to retrieve data from
web servers asynchronously, allowing the update of
web content without interfering with the display and
behavior of the whole page). For the purpose of our
article, we consider Web 2.0 as the platform for the
evolution of Social Media.
When Web 2.0 represents the ideological and
technological foundation, User Generated Content
(UGC) can be seen as the sum of all ways in which
people make use of Social Media. The term, which
achieved broad popularity in 2005, is usually applied
to describe the various forms of media content that
are publicly available and created by end-users.
According to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, 2007), UGC
needs to fulfill three basic requirements in order
to be considered as such: first, it needs to be
published either on a publicly accessible website
or on a social networking site accessible to a selected group of people; second, it needs to show a
certain amount of creative effort; and finally, it
needs to have been created outside of professional
routines and practices. The first condition excludes
content exchanged in e-mails or instant messages;
the second, mere replications of already existing
content (e.g., posting a copy of an existing newspaper article on a personal blog without any modifications or commenting); and the third, all content
that has been created with a commercial market
context in mind. While UGC has already been
available prior to Web 2.0, as discussed above,
the combination of technological drivers (e.g.,
increased broadband availability and hardware
capacity), economic drivers (e.g., increased availability of tools for the creation of UGC), and
social drivers (e.g., rise of a generation of
‘‘digital natives’’ and ‘‘screenagers’’: younger age
groups with substantial technical knowledge and
willingness to engage online) make UGC nowadays
fundamentally different from what was observed in
the early 1980s. Based on these clarifications of Web
2.0 and UGC, it is now straightforward to give a more
detailed definition of what we mean by Social Media. In our view–—and as used herein–—Social Media is
a group of Internet-based applications that build on
the ideological and technological foundations of
Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange
of User Generated Content.
Within this general definition, there are various
types of Social Media that need to be distinguished
further. However, although most people would probably agree that Wikipedia, YouTube, Facebook, and
Second Life are all part of this large group, there is no
systematic way in which different Social Media applications can be categorized. Also, new sites appear
in cyberspace every day, so it is important that any
classification scheme takes into account applications
which may be forthcoming. To create such a classification scheme, and to do so in a systematic manner,
we rely on a set of theories in the field of media
research (social presence, media richness) and social
processes (self-presentation, self-disclosure), the
two key elements of Social Media. Regarding the
media-related component of Social Media, social
presence theory (Short, Williams, & Christie, 1976)
states that media differ in the degree of ‘‘social
presence’’–—defined as the acoustic, visual, and physical contact that can be achieved–—they allow to
emerge between two communication partners.
Social presence is influenced by the intimacy (interpersonal vs. mediated) and immediacy (asynchronous
vs. synchronous) of the medium, and can be expected
to be lower for mediated (e.g., telephone conversation) than interpersonal (e.g., face-to-face discussion) and for asynchronous (e.g., e-mail) than
synchronous (e.g., live chat) communications. The
higher the social presence, the larger the social
influence that the communication partners have on
each other’s behavior. Closely related to the idea of
social presence is the concept of media richness.
Media richness theory (Daft & Lengel, 1986) is based
on the assumption that the goal of any communication is the resolution of ambiguity and the reduction
of uncertainty. It states that media differ in the
degree of richness they possess–—that is, the amount
of information they allow to be transmitted in a given
time interval–—and that therefore some media are
more effective than others in resolving ambiguity and
uncertainty. Applied to the context of Social Media,
we assume that a first classification can be made
based on the richness of the medium and the degree
of social presence it allows.
With respect to the social dimension of Social
Media, the concept of self-presentation states that
A.M. Kaplan, M. Haenlein
in any type of social interaction people have the
desire to control the impressions other people form
of them (Goffman, 1959). On the one hand, this is
done with the objective of influencing others to gain
rewards (e.g., make a positive impression on your
future in-laws); on the other hand, it is driven by a
wish to create an image that is consistent with one’s
personal identity (e.g., wearing a fashionable outfit
in order to be perceived as young and trendy). The
key reason why people decide to create a personal
webpage is, for example, the wish to present themselves in cyberspace (Schau & Gilly, 2003). Usually,
such a presentation is done through self-disclosure;
that is, the conscious or unconscious revelation of
personal information (e.g., thoughts, feelings,
likes, dislikes) that is consistent with the image
one would like to give. Self-disclosure is a critical
step in the development of close relationships (e.g.,
during dating) but can also occur between complete
strangers; for example, when speaking about personal problems with the person seated next to you
on an airplane. Applied to the context of Social
Media, we assume that a second classification can
be made based on the degree of self-disclosure it
requires and the type of self-presentation it allows.
Combining both dimensions leads to a classification of Social Media which we have visualized in
Table 1. With respect to social presence and media
richness, applications such as collaborative projects
(e.g., Wikipedia) and blogs score lowest, as they are
often text-based and hence only allow for a relatively simple exchange. On the next level are content communities (e.g., YouTube) and social
networking sites (e.g., Facebook) which, in addition
to text-based communication, enable the sharing of
pictures, videos, and other forms of media. On the
highest level are virtual game and social worlds
(e.g., World of Warcraft, Second Life), which try
to replicate all dimensions of face-to-face interactions in a virtual environment. Regarding self-presentation and self-disclosure, blogs usually score
higher than collaborative projects, as the latter
tend to be focused on specific content domains.
Table 1.
In a similar spirit, social networking sites allow
for more self-disclosure than content communities.
Finally, virtual social worlds require a higher level of
self-disclosure than virtual game worlds, as the
latter are ruled by strict guidelines that force users
to behave in a certain way (e.g., as warriors in an
imaginary fantasy land). We will now provide more
detail on each of these six different types of Social
Media, and discuss the challenges and opportunities
they offer companies.
3. The challenges and opportunities of
Social Media
3.1. Collaborative projects
Collaborative projects enable the joint and simultaneous creation of content by many end-users and
are, in this sense, probably the most democratic
manifestation of UGC. Within collaborative projects, one differentiates between wikis–—that is,
websites which allow users to add, remove, and
change text-based content–—and social bookmarking applications–—which enable the group-based collection and rating of Internet links or media content.
Exemplary applications within this category include
the online encyclopedia Wikipedia, a wiki currently
available in more than 230 different languages, and
the social bookmarking web service Delicious, which
allows the storage and sharing of web bookmarks.
The main idea underlying collaborative projects is
that the joint effort of many actors leads to a better
outcome than any actor could achieve individually;
this is similar to the efficient-market hypothesis in
behavioral finance (Fama, 1970). From a corporate
perspective, firms must be aware that collaborative
projects are trending toward becoming the main
source of information for many consumers. As such,
although not everything written on Wikipedia may
actually be true, it is believed to be true by more
and more Internet users. This may be particularly
crucial as regards corporate crises. For example,
Classification of Social Media by social presence/media richness and self-presentation/self-disclosure
Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media
when online book retailer Amazon started to test
the idea of dynamic pricing, comments declaring
such a practice as unfair showed up instantaneously
under the Wikipedia entry on ‘‘time-based pricing.’’
Yet, collaborative projects also provide some unique
opportunities for firms. Finnish handset manufacturer Nokia, for instance, uses internal wikis to
update employees on project status and to trade
ideas, which are used by about 20% of its 68,000
staff members. Likewise, American computer software company Adobe Systems maintains a list of
bookmarks to company-related websites and conversations on Delicious.
3.2. Blogs
Blogs, which represent the earliest form of Social
Media, are special types of websites that usually
display date-stamped entries in reverse chronological order (OECD, 2007). They are the Social Media
equivalent of personal web pages and can come in a
multitude of different variations, from personal
diaries describing the author’s life to summaries
of all relevant information in one specific content
area. Blogs are usually managed by one person only,
but provide the possibility of interaction with others
through the addition of comments. Due to their
historical roots, text-based blogs are still by far
the most common. Nevertheless, blogs have also
begun to take different media formats. For example, San Francisco-based allows users to
create personalized television channels via which
they can broadcast images from their webcam in
real time to other users. Many companies are already using bl …
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