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Due 3/11/2019 Many people receive their first introduction to the scientific method in their early school years. The first experiments which students undertake typically involve plants, chemicals, or small animals in a tightly controlled experimental environment. These experiments enable students to establish a relatively clear cause-and-effect relationship between the outcome of the experiment and the manipulation of the variables. As soon as a researcher introduces a human element, proving a cause and effect relationship becomes more difficult—as the researcher cannot enact total control of another person even in an experimental environment. Social workers serve clients in highly complex real-world environments. Clients often implement recommended interventions outside of social workers’ direct observation. Yet, evidence-based research calls for social workers to establish cause-and-effect relations between selected interventions and client outcomes as much possible. To meet this challenge, social workers must understand the study designs available to them and all of the variations of that design that can increase the rigor of the experiment and improve the likelihood of verifying a cause-and-effect relationship. In this week’s case study, you decide whether the social worker in the case study has appropriately chosen a single-system (subject) design and implemented it in such a way that it can be considered an appropriate example of evidence-based research. To prepare for this Discussion, read the case study Social Work Research: Single Subject and criteria for using single-system (subject) designs as evidence of effective practices in this week’s resources. Consider whether the study design described in the case study will serve the purpose of evaluating the program’s practice approach (case management with solution-focused and task-centered approaches). Consider whether these approaches are well suited to evaluation by the types of measurement used in the study. Consider to what objective measurement the numerical scales used to measure problem-change and task completion corresponds. Consider what new knowledge and evidence for the efficacy of the treatment approaches Chris has generated with her study. Post an evaluation of the proposed study design described in the case study file.Explain whether the outcome of Chris’ study with her client George would lead you to adopt the model of case management with solution-focused and task-centered approaches, and substantiate your choice. Provide recommendations for improvements should Chris and her colleagues wish to submit the study to the evidence-based practice registry. Provide a rationale for your recommendations. References Plummer, S.-B., Makris, S., & Brocksen S. (Eds.). (2014b). Social work case studies: Concentration year. Baltimore, MD: Laureate International Universities Publishing. [Vital Source e-reader]. Read the following section: “Social Work Research: Single Subject” (pp. 70–72) Social Work Research: Single Subject Chris is a social worker in a geriatric case management program located in a midsize Northeastern town. She has an MSW and is part of a team of case managers that likes to continuously improve on its practice. The team is currently using an approach that integrates elements of geriatric case management with short-term treatment methods, particularly the solution-focused and task-centered models. As part of their ongoing practice, the team regularly conducts practice evaluations. It has participated in larger scale research projects in the past. The agency is fairly small (three full-time and two part-time social work case managers) and is one of several providers in a region of approximately 50,000 inhabitants. Strengths of the agency include a strong professional network and good reputation in the local community as well as the team of experienced social workers. Staff turnover has been almost nonexistent for the past 3 years. The agency serves about 60–70 clients at any given time. The clients assisted by the case management program are older adults, ranging from their early 60s to over 100 years of age, as well as their caregivers. To evaluate its practice approach, the team has decided to use a multiple-baseline, single-subject design. Each of the full-time case managers will select one client new to the caseload to participate in the study. The research project is explained to clients by the respective case manager and informed consent to participate is requested. George was identified by Chris as a potential candidate for the evaluation. As a former science teacher who loved to do research himself, he agreed to participate in the project. George is 87 years old, and although he is not as physically robust as he once was, at 5 feet 9 inches tall, he has a strong presence. He has consistent back pain and occasional flare-ups of rheumatoid arthritis. His wife of 45 years passed away two summers ago after a long fight with cancer. After his initial grief, he has managed fairly well to adapt to life on his own. George entered the program after being hospitalized for fainting while at the grocery store. A battery of medical tests was conducted, but no specific cause of his fainting attack could be found. However, the physicians assessed signs of slight cognitive impairments/dementia and suggested a geriatric case management program. An initial assessment by the case manager showed the need for assistance in the following areas: 1) personal care, 2) decrease in mobility, and 3) longer-term planning around living arrangement and home safety. The case manager also thought that George could benefit from setting up advance directives, which he did not want to discuss at that time. They agreed that the case manager could bring this topic up again in the future. As part of the practice process, the case manager used clinical rating scales that were adapted from the task-centered model. At the beginning of each client contact, case manager and client collaboratively evaluated how well the practice steps (tasks) undertaken by client and/or case manager were completed using a 10-point clinical scale. Concurrently, they evaluated changes to the respective client problems, also using a 10-point clinical scale. George was able to actively participate in the planning and implementation of most care-related decisions. During the course of their collaborative work, most needs were at least partially addressed. Two tasks were completed regarding personal care, two regarding mobility, and three addressing home safety issues. Only personal mobility was still a minor problem and required some additional work. After finishing the reassessment at 3 months, Chris completed gathering and evaluating the data for the single-subject design (SSD). As promised, she also provided George with the finished SSD findings. The following is an overview of the data that was collected for this case:The assessment is included in attachment
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Due 3/11/2019
Many people receive their first introduction to the scientific method in their early school years.
The first experiments which students undertake typically involve plants, chemicals, or small
animals in a tightly controlled experimental environment. These experiments enable students to
establish a relatively clear cause-and-effect relationship between the outcome of the experiment
and the manipulation of the variables.
As soon as a researcher introduces a human element, proving a cause and effect relationship
becomes more difficult—as the researcher cannot enact total control of another person even in an
experimental environment. Social workers serve clients in highly complex real-world
environments. Clients often implement recommended interventions outside of social workers’
direct observation. Yet, evidence-based research calls for social workers to establish cause-andeffect relations between selected interventions and client outcomes as much possible. To meet
this challenge, social workers must understand the study designs available to them and all of the
variations of that design that can increase the rigor of the experiment and improve the likelihood
of verifying a cause-and-effect relationship.
In this week’s case study, you decide whether the social worker in the case study has
appropriately chosen a single-system (subject) design and implemented it in such a way that it
can be considered an appropriate example of evidence-based research.
To prepare for this Discussion, read the case study Social Work Research: Single Subject and
criteria for using single-system (subject) designs as evidence of effective practices in this week’s
resources. Consider whether the study design described in the case study will serve the purpose
of evaluating the program’s practice approach (case management with solution-focused and taskcentered approaches).
Consider whether these approaches are well suited to evaluation by the types of measurement
used in the study. Consider to what objective measurement the numerical scales used to measure
problem-change and task completion corresponds. Consider what new knowledge and evidence
for the efficacy of the treatment approaches Chris has generated with her study.




Post an evaluation of the proposed study design described in the case study file.
Explain whether the outcome of Chris’ study with her client George would lead you to
adopt the model of case management with solution-focused and task-centered
approaches, and substantiate your choice.
Provide recommendations for improvements should Chris and her colleagues wish to
submit the study to the evidence-based practice registry.
Provide a rationale for your recommendations.
References

Plummer, S.-B., Makris, S., & Brocksen S. (Eds.). (2014b). Social work case studies:
Concentration year. Baltimore, MD: Laureate International Universities Publishing. [Vital
Source e-reader].
Read the following section:
“Social Work Research: Single Subject” (pp. 70–72)
Social Work Research: Single Subject
Chris is a social worker in a geriatric case management program located in a midsize
Northeastern town. She has an MSW and is part of a team of case managers that likes to
continuously improve on its practice. The team is currently using an approach that integrates
elements of geriatric case management with short-term treatment methods, particularly the
solution-focused and task-centered models. As part of their ongoing practice, the team regularly
conducts practice evaluations. It has participated in larger scale research projects in the past.
The agency is fairly small (three full-time and two part-time social work case managers) and
is one of several providers in a region of approximately 50,000 inhabitants. Strengths of the agency
include a strong professional network and good reputation in the local community as well as the
team of experienced social workers. Staff turnover has been almost nonexistent for the past 3 years.
The agency serves about 60–70 clients at any given time. The clients assisted by the case
management program are older adults, ranging from their early 60s to over 100 years of age, as
well as their caregivers.
To evaluate its practice approach, the team has decided to use a multiple-baseline, singlesubject design. Each of the full-time case managers will select one client new to the caseload to
participate in the study. The research project is explained to clients by the respective case manager
and informed consent to participate is requested.
George was identified by Chris as a potential candidate for the evaluation. As a former science
teacher who loved to do research himself, he agreed to participate in the project. George is 87 years
old, and although he is not as physically robust as he once was, at 5 feet 9 inches tall, he has a
strong presence. He has consistent back pain and occasional flare-ups of rheumatoid arthritis. His
wife of 45 years passed away two summers ago after a long fight with cancer. After his initial
grief, he has managed fairly well to adapt to life on his own. George entered the program after
being hospitalized for fainting while at the grocery store. A battery of medical tests was conducted,
but no specific cause of his fainting attack could be found. However, the physicians assessed signs
of slight cognitive impairments/dementia and suggested a geriatric case management program.
An initial assessment by the case manager showed the need for assistance in the following
areas: 1) personal care, 2) decrease in mobility, and 3) longer-term planning around living
arrangement and home safety. The case manager also thought that George could benefit from
setting up advance directives, which he did not want to discuss at that time. They agreed that the
case manager could bring this topic up again in the future.
As part of the practice process, the case manager used clinical rating scales that were adapted
from the task-centered model. At the beginning of each client contact, case manager and client
collaboratively evaluated how well the practice steps (tasks) undertaken by client and/or case
manager were completed using a 10-point clinical scale. Concurrently, they evaluated changes to
the respective client problems, also using a 10-point clinical scale. George was able to actively
participate in the planning and implementation of most care-related decisions. During the course
of their collaborative work, most needs were at least partially addressed. Two tasks were completed
regarding personal care, two regarding mobility, and three addressing home safety issues. Only
personal mobility was still a minor problem and required some additional work.
After finishing the reassessment at 3 months, Chris completed gathering and evaluating the
data for the single-subject design (SSD). As promised, she also provided George with the finished
SSD findings. The following is an overview of the data that was collected for this case:
Locating Assessment
Instruments
Kevin Corcoran and Nikki 1-lozack
T
his chapter nddres.es how to locate instr uments for oocial wor~ reseJr.:h
and practice. T h is task may not seem too challenging, but it is. Locating
in,trument includes being familiar with a number of sources of men
surement in.)trumems and knowing what it is one \·ants to measure or
observe in the first place.
To locate 3Jl instrument, the researcher mu’t know 1• hat he or she intends to mea
sure. This includes a well-defined construct or conceptual domain of study. fbe measurement tool is the operationa.lizntion o f the v.triable, and it is impossible to locate an
•ppropria te mea1u rement unless the resea rcher is certJin what is to be measu red.
Knowing what to obsen·e includes precise definitions of the independent and depen
dent vari,tbles. I nstruments often are .t>sociated with operationalizing the dependent
variables (e.g., m nl”ital discord in a single-system design o f a couple in counseling, dinteal depr~s;,ion in a , instruments chiefly ascertain the ob by some relevant Other, such as a spouse or case manager.
lly design, instruments intend to sy~tematically quan tify some affeo, cognit io n, o r con
duct in some environment or setting and provide numerical estimates of affect, cogni ·
tion) or conduct.
Instruments also are useful in opc1·ationalizing independent va riables. I n experimcn
tal design>, this is considered a o1anipulation check. The reason for using a measurement
of the independent ,·ariables, as tl1e phr..se suggests, is to determine “hether the manipulation o f the independent 1•ar iablc was suc(.essful. Po t· example, assume that the
rcsearchct· is conduuiog a study comparing in -home counseling services to ca;e ma n
agement services. The researcher “ould want to be reassured rhat the coumcling group
was actually getting “cou nseli ng” from the cou nselor and that the case rn.Ulagemcnt
group wa> not getting some fo rm of counseling fro m the case mao.1gers. Without the
fonner,the researcher would not be certain that the counseling groups actually had •uflicient exposure to truly be considered under the treatment condition of counseling. By
measuring the independent var iable, the resca,·cher ca 11 also determine whethc,· expo
sure to some form of therapeu tic relat ionship wit h the ca•c manager contam111ated the
com parison group. fo conduct a manipulation check hke this, the researcher mitht
decide to administer the Working illhmce Inventory (l torvath & Greenberg, 1989),
which ascertains th ree elements of therapeutic relationsh ips: go•l orientn tion. task
65
66
Pt.n1′ I • Q uMml’t. n ·; c API’RUA<:uts: Fo u :.JOAtiONS Of Ot.rA Com CliON directedness, and bonding. T he resea rchers would expect that th e research participants in I he experimental cond ition "~Nould have stronger indicators o f a therapeutic relation · ship and th at those in the control group would not. l n su mmary, the challenge of locating measures includes determ in ing what weU ·definecl construct or concept of either the independent or dependen t variable is to be observed. Once that is determined, the challenge is to marshal through a number of mea· sures as to find appropriate ones that are reliable and valid. T his chapter p.-ovides a number of resources to locate instruments but does not promise to enable the reader to do a complete search for all c;, is ting instruments. T hat is becomi ng increasingly difficult wit h the development of more instrum ents and new outlets of availability (e.g., the Internet). T he scope of the resources in th is chapter, howe,•er, is sufficiently broad to tocate an adequate number of instru men t~ filr research """ practice, and in alllikeli· hood, the social work researcher will find many appropriate instruments and not too few. Sources for Locating Instruments Th~re are a number of sources of instruments. T his chap ter considers fo ur major sources: profess ional journals, books, commercial pu blishing houses speciali2ing ill marketing measurement tools, and the Internet. ' Professiona l Journals Instruments are of little value unless they are psychometrically ~ound (i.e., reliable and valid) . Because the development of a good instrument itself involves research to estimate reliability and validity, professional journals often are the first outlets for new instru· me:nts. Journals are also one of the fi rst outkk~ for norma tive da ta on more established instruments. Because of the rapid change in the knowledge base of the behavioral and soc ial sciences, journals probably ychology www.apa.org/JournaiS/ccp Joumol of NeMNJS and Muotol Drsease WNYi jonmd tom Joumal of Petsonolo'ry Assusment www.persona~~ty org/jpa.hL'1'1t Mwsuremeul ond Cvoluut10n m www.couns(l'ling.org/Psbhcations/ JournalS w~px CQJJnscling and Development Psychologrcal Asst~ment wvM.apa.o 1g/JOUrna is/ pas Resoorrh in Social WOOn & Shaver, 1973). A couple of books are more specific to certain populations (e.g., families (McCubbin, .bm Thornpo;on. and M'Cubt>n ( 1996)

SouU.v.O. l(orMal<, ond ~ ewm•n Coldman, Stem. and Cueny (1983) (1986) Htr.,..rr and Ollcndrtt (19n) Gonoleyllnd Kramer ( t9S9, 19$5) J"ob and Tenneubaurn (191!8) Daoa (1993) >:a..,plaus and ReynOlds (1990)

Fredman .1nd Sherman (1987)

Lann, Rutter. and Turroa (1988)

Crotevant n (t986)

“‘·””and Tenia! ( 1988)

Hc1’!1an (1983)

Me1’c<, Ponteoono, and Surot.i (1996) Hube1 and lle.atth Outcou (:) l n~titutc ( 19<)11) K"':enb.l um and Wollam' ( 1988) ~ ;u>d ~nd (‘9’JO)

Kumpler. Shur, Ross. Bunnell. l 1brert, and Mrllwaod
( 1992)
,•.~cOo…:

and t>ev.<:t' ( t987. 1996) Mcrluni, Glass, and C.onest (198 1) Oql..,, Lambert. .,><1MasteIENtS 69 Commercial Publishing Houses T he researcher may locate instruments from commercial publishing houses that specialize in marketing measurement tools. T his outlet for instruments bas a number of advantages, iJJcluding security from the liability o f copyright infringements, access to established instruments, and relative normative data that might be available only from the stream of commerce. Examples of this last point indude the Bed< Depression Inventory, wh ich is available through Psychological Corporation, and Hudson's ( 1992) popular clinical measurement package, which is available from WALMYR Publishing (see 1tble 5.3). Most of the instruments marketecl b)' publishi ng houus are available at a rea•onable fee. Others instruments are available at no cost, such as the widely used Physical and Mental Health Summary Scales, also known as the SF-36 and the SF-12 (Ware, Kosinski, & Keller, 1994a, 1994b). T hese instruments are available through the Medical Outcomes Trust (see Table 5.3). Table 5.3 lists a variety of publishing houses pro,~ding instruments. It is far from a complete list given that there arc nearly 1,000 publishing houses marketing assessment tools, not to mention a large number of presses that publish on ly a few specialty instrumen ts. One of the most thorough lists is found in Conoley and Kramer (1995). When available, we have included the URL to facilitate your search. The Internet An other valuable source for locating instrumerLIS is the Internet. T his remarkable source is truly a fountain for inform ation worldwide and provides acce~s to actual measurements from commerc iai Web sites, not-for-profit sites, research centers, pubtidy traded companies, and even individual authors wth of in formation available. T his rate of change often mea ns that as Web sites come, so may they go. Unlike a lib rary, the information retrieved might not contin ue to be available to others n eeding it in the futllre. It is also importa nt to note that the l nternet may allow access or availability to measurements that yo u need a professio nal license and the proper training tO adm inister and may require permission to use. As stated by the Emo ry University Library (2006), "ln order to obtain and adm inister p ublished psycho logical tests (sometimes called commercial tests), one must be a licensed professional or in some cases, a graduate student.'' ... Purchase answer to see full attachment

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