Please find in here the spss dataset for the cell phone survey data and a copy of the spss output which details the results of the reliability and validity analyses. You will need these to complete Lab Report Part 2.

20190317135819lab_report_part_2__1_.docx

20190317140209spss_output_data__1_.dotx

20190317135818writing_a_results_section___1_.pptx

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Lab Report Part #2:

(due by March 21st)

For this lab assignment, you are going to write a Results and Discussion section from the

cellphone survey pilot study. The Results and Discussion sections should adhere completely to

APA format. PLEASE look over the PPT I posted about writing this section and USE YOUR APA

MANUAL.

I have provided the SPSS dataset that contains the cell phone survey data. I am also giving you a

copy of the output of the final reliability analyses I ran on both the am and pm cell phone

surveys. I also included an analysis of the reliability of each measures with the SAS. Please note

things came out a little bit differently than we discussed in class earlier in the semester. (I

eliminated more items from each scale based on the reliability analyses and then recalculated a

total score for each scale based ONLY on the items that I included in the final reliability analysis

for each scale).

Please note, however, at minimum you will have to run the descriptive statistics on the total

scores derived from each survey to complete the results section. HINT: You may also want to

run descriptive statistics for each item that was retained in the final scale.

RELIABILITY

/VARIABLES=am1 am2 am3 am4 am6 am7 am8 am10 am11 am12 am15 am5r am9r

am13r am14r

/SCALE(‘ALL VARIABLES’) ALL

/MODEL=ALPHA

/STATISTICS=DESCRIPTIVE SCALE

/SUMMARY=TOTAL.

Reliability

Notes

Output Created

Comments

Input

Missing Value Handling

14-MAR-2019 12:58:04

Data

/Users/ejaeger/Desktop/cell

phone.sav

Active Dataset

DataSet5

Filter

Weight

Split File

N of Rows in Working Data

26

File

Matrix Input

Definition of Missing

User-defined missing

values are treated as

missing.

Cases Used

Statistics are based on all

cases with valid data for all

variables in the procedure.

Syntax

RELIABILITY

/VARIABLES=am1 am2

am3 am4 am6 am7 am8

am10 am11 am12 am15

am5r am9r am13r am14r

/SCALE(‘ALL

VARIABLES’) ALL

/MODEL=ALPHA

Resources

/STATISTICS=DESCRIPTI

VE SCALE

/SUMMARY=TOTAL.

00:00:00.01

00:00:00.00

Processor Time

Elapsed Time

Scale: ALL VARIABLES

Case Processing Summary

N

Cases

Valid

Excludeda

Total

%

25

1

26

96.2

3.8

100.0

a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in

the procedure.

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach’s

Alpha

.694

N of Items

15

Item Statistics

am1

am2

am3

Mean

4.5600

2.3200

3.0400

Std. Deviation

1.32539

1.21518

1.45717

N

25

25

25

am4

am6

am7

am8

am10

am11

am12

am15

am5r

am9r

am13r

am14r

3.7600

2.8800

2.2800

2.2400

3.1200

3.0400

3.3600

3.2400

3.6000

3.7600

3.0000

2.7600

1.36260

1.61555

1.17331

1.33167

1.20139

1.59374

1.22066

1.73877

1.58114

1.66533

1.19024

1.50776

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

Item-Total Statistics

am1

am2

am3

am4

am6

am7

am8

am10

am11

am12

am15

am5r

am9r

am13r

am14r

Scale Mean if Scale Variance

Item Deleted

if Item Deleted

42.4000

74.167

44.6400

81.240

43.9200

67.410

43.2000

76.417

44.0800

75.827

44.6800

80.810

44.7200

79.960

43.8400

76.807

43.9200

84.827

43.6000

75.333

43.7200

68.877

43.3600

81.240

43.2000

70.833

43.9600

75.540

44.2000

84.000

Corrected ItemTotal

Correlation

.458

.167

.704

.340

.282

.198

.195

.386

-.034

.451

.501

.092

.455

.455

.004

Cronbach’s

Alpha if Item

Deleted

.661

.693

.625

.674

.682

.690

.691

.670

.723

.663

.648

.707

.656

.663

.716

Scale Statistics

Mean

46.9600

Variance

86.373

Std. Deviation

9.29373

N of Items

15

RELIABILITY

/VARIABLES=am1 am2 am3 am4 am6 am7 am8 am10 am12 am15 am5r am9r am13r

am14r

/SCALE(‘ALL VARIABLES’) ALL

/MODEL=ALPHA

/STATISTICS=DESCRIPTIVE SCALE

/SUMMARY=TOTAL.

Reliability

Notes

Output Created

Comments

Input

Missing Value Handling

Syntax

Resources

14-MAR-2019 12:58:24

Data

/Users/ejaeger/Desktop/cell

phone.sav

Active Dataset

DataSet5

Filter

Weight

Split File

N of Rows in Working Data

26

File

Matrix Input

Definition of Missing

User-defined missing

values are treated as

missing.

Cases Used

Statistics are based on all

cases with valid data for all

variables in the procedure.

RELIABILITY

/VARIABLES=am1 am2

am3 am4 am6 am7 am8

am10 am12 am15 am5r

am9r am13r am14r

/SCALE(‘ALL

VARIABLES’) ALL

/MODEL=ALPHA

Processor Time

/STATISTICS=DESCRIPTI

VE SCALE

/SUMMARY=TOTAL.

00:00:00.01

Elapsed Time

00:00:00.00

Scale: ALL VARIABLES

Case Processing Summary

N

Cases

Valid

Excludeda

Total

%

25

1

26

96.2

3.8

100.0

a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in

the procedure.

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach’s

Alpha

.723

N of Items

14

Item Statistics

am1

am2

am3

am4

am6

am7

am8

am10

am12

am15

am5r

am9r

am13r

am14r

Mean

4.5600

2.3200

3.0400

3.7600

2.8800

2.2800

2.2400

3.1200

3.3600

3.2400

3.6000

3.7600

3.0000

2.7600

Std. Deviation

1.32539

1.21518

1.45717

1.36260

1.61555

1.17331

1.33167

1.20139

1.22066

1.73877

1.58114

1.66533

1.19024

1.50776

N

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

Item-Total Statistics

am1

am2

am3

am4

am6

am7

am8

am10

am12

am15

am5r

am9r

am13r

am14r

Scale Mean if Scale Variance

Item Deleted

if Item Deleted

39.3600

71.990

41.6000

79.417

40.8800

66.777

40.1600

74.890

41.0400

73.623

41.6400

78.990

41.6800

77.893

40.8000

75.750

40.5600

75.173

40.6800

66.393

40.3200

78.810

40.1600

67.807

40.9200

75.160

41.1600

83.140

Corrected ItemTotal

Correlation

.493

.182

.669

.343

.310

.214

.220

.365

.386

.544

.125

.519

.400

-.021

Cronbach’s

Alpha if Item

Deleted

.690

.723

.665

.707

.711

.720

.720

.705

.703

.678

.734

.682

.702

.749

Scale Statistics

Mean

43.9200

Variance

84.827

Std. Deviation

9.21014

N of Items

14

RELIABILITY

/VARIABLES=am1 am2 am3 am4 am6 am7 am8 am10 am12 am15 am5r am9r am13r

/SCALE(‘ALL VARIABLES’) ALL

/MODEL=ALPHA

/STATISTICS=DESCRIPTIVE SCALE

/SUMMARY=TOTAL.

Reliability

Notes

Output Created

Comments

14-MAR-2019 12:58:46

Input

Data

Missing Value Handling

Syntax

Resources

/Users/ejaeger/Desktop/cell

phone.sav

Active Dataset

DataSet5

Filter

Weight

Split File

N of Rows in Working Data

26

File

Matrix Input

Definition of Missing

User-defined missing

values are treated as

missing.

Cases Used

Statistics are based on all

cases with valid data for all

variables in the procedure.

RELIABILITY

/VARIABLES=am1 am2

am3 am4 am6 am7 am8

am10 am12 am15 am5r

am9r am13r

/SCALE(‘ALL

VARIABLES’) ALL

/MODEL=ALPHA

Processor Time

Elapsed Time

Scale: ALL VARIABLES

Case Processing Summary

N

Cases

Valid

Excludeda

Total

%

25

1

26

96.2

3.8

100.0

/STATISTICS=DESCRIPTI

VE SCALE

/SUMMARY=TOTAL.

00:00:00.01

00:00:00.00

a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in

the procedure.

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach’s

Alpha

.749

N of Items

13

Item Statistics

am1

am2

am3

am4

am6

am7

am8

am10

am12

am15

am5r

am9r

am13r

Mean

4.5600

2.3200

3.0400

3.7600

2.8800

2.2800

2.2400

3.1200

3.3600

3.2400

3.6000

3.7600

3.0000

Std. Deviation

1.32539

1.21518

1.45717

1.36260

1.61555

1.17331

1.33167

1.20139

1.22066

1.73877

1.58114

1.66533

1.19024

N

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

Item-Total Statistics

am1

am2

am3

am4

am6

am7

am8

am10

am12

am15

am5r

Scale Mean if Scale Variance

Item Deleted

if Item Deleted

36.6000

71.333

38.8400

77.057

38.1200

66.277

37.4000

73.250

38.2800

71.460

38.8800

75.943

38.9200

76.160

38.0400

74.623

37.8000

74.083

37.9200

63.827

37.5600

74.923

Corrected ItemTotal

Correlation

.449

.216

.621

.344

.332

.285

.224

.341

.360

.586

.209

Cronbach’s

Alpha if Item

Deleted

.726

.749

.704

.737

.740

.743

.749

.737

.736

.705

.754

am9r

am13r

37.4000

38.1600

66.583

74.640

.507

.344

.717

.737

Scale Statistics

Mean

41.1600

Variance

83.140

Std. Deviation

9.11811

N of Items

13

RELIABILITY

/VARIABLES=am1 am2 am3 am4 am6 am7 am8 am10 am12 am15 am9r am13r

/SCALE(‘ALL VARIABLES’) ALL

/MODEL=ALPHA

/STATISTICS=DESCRIPTIVE SCALE

/SUMMARY=TOTAL.

Reliability

Notes

Output Created

Comments

Input

Missing Value Handling

14-MAR-2019 12:59:45

Data

/Users/ejaeger/Desktop/cell

phone.sav

Active Dataset

DataSet5

Filter

Weight

Split File

N of Rows in Working Data

26

File

Matrix Input

Definition of Missing

User-defined missing

values are treated as

missing.

Cases Used

Statistics are based on all

cases with valid data for all

variables in the procedure.

Syntax

RELIABILITY

/VARIABLES=am1 am2

am3 am4 am6 am7 am8

am10 am12 am15 am9r

am13r

/SCALE(‘ALL

VARIABLES’) ALL

/MODEL=ALPHA

Resources

/STATISTICS=DESCRIPTI

VE SCALE

/SUMMARY=TOTAL.

00:00:00.01

00:00:00.00

Processor Time

Elapsed Time

Scale: ALL VARIABLES

Case Processing Summary

N

Cases

Valid

Excludeda

Total

%

25

1

26

96.2

3.8

100.0

a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in

the procedure.

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach’s

Alpha

.754

N of Items

12

Item Statistics

am1

am2

am3

Mean

4.5600

2.3200

3.0400

Std. Deviation

1.32539

1.21518

1.45717

N

25

25

25

am4

am6

am7

am8

am10

am12

am15

am9r

am13r

3.7600

2.8800

2.2800

2.2400

3.1200

3.3600

3.2400

3.7600

3.0000

1.36260

1.61555

1.17331

1.33167

1.20139

1.22066

1.73877

1.66533

1.19024

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

Item-Total Statistics

am1

am2

am3

am4

am6

am7

am8

am10

am12

am15

am9r

am13r

Scale Mean if Scale Variance

Item Deleted

if Item Deleted

33.0000

63.250

35.2400

69.607

34.5200

58.510

33.8000

67.000

34.6800

62.560

35.2800

68.543

35.3200

67.643

34.4400

66.090

34.2000

66.000

34.3200

56.810

33.8000

59.417

34.5600

66.923

Corrected ItemTotal

Correlation

.470

.189

.641

.272

.382

.258

.251

.378

.375

.576

.496

.338

Cronbach’s

Alpha if Item

Deleted

.728

.758

.705

.751

.739

.751

.753

.739

.740

.711

.723

.743

Scale Statistics

Mean

37.5600

Variance

74.923

Std. Deviation

8.65583

N of Items

12

RELIABILITY

/VARIABLES=pm1 pm2 pm3 pm4 pm5 pm6 pm7 pm9 pm10 pm11 pm12 pm13 pm14

pm15 pm17 pm18 pm8rev pm16r

/SCALE(‘ALL VARIABLES’) ALL

/MODEL=ALPHA

/STATISTICS=DESCRIPTIVE SCALE

/SUMMARY=TOTAL.

Reliability

Notes

Output Created

Comments

Input

Missing Value Handling

Syntax

Resources

14-MAR-2019 13:01:19

Data

/Users/ejaeger/Desktop/cell

phone.sav

Active Dataset

DataSet5

Filter

Weight

Split File

N of Rows in Working Data

26

File

Matrix Input

Definition of Missing

User-defined missing

values are treated as

missing.

Cases Used

Statistics are based on all

cases with valid data for all

variables in the procedure.

RELIABILITY

/VARIABLES=pm1 pm2

pm3 pm4 pm5 pm6 pm7

pm9 pm10 pm11 pm12

pm13 pm14 pm15 pm17

pm18 pm8rev pm16r

/SCALE(‘ALL

VARIABLES’) ALL

/MODEL=ALPHA

Processor Time

Elapsed Time

Scale: ALL VARIABLES

/STATISTICS=DESCRIPTI

VE SCALE

/SUMMARY=TOTAL.

00:00:00.01

00:00:00.00

Case Processing Summary

N

Cases

Valid

Excludeda

Total

%

25

1

26

96.2

3.8

100.0

a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in

the procedure.

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach’s

Alpha

.824

N of Items

18

Item Statistics

pm1

pm2

pm3

pm4

pm5

pm6

pm7

pm9

pm10

pm11

pm12

pm13

pm14

pm15

pm17

pm18

pm8rev

pm16r

Mean

2.0000

2.5600

3.0400

3.1600

2.3600

2.3600

1.9600

2.4000

1.6000

1.9600

2.0000

2.2000

1.6800

2.3200

2.9200

1.9200

2.4000

2.8800

Std. Deviation

1.11803

.91652

1.01980

.89815

.99499

.99499

1.05987

.86603

.81650

1.05987

1.11803

.95743

.85245

.94516

.95394

1.03763

1.22474

1.01325

N

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

Item-Total Statistics

pm1

pm2

pm3

pm4

pm5

pm6

pm7

pm9

pm10

pm11

pm12

pm13

pm14

pm15

pm17

pm18

pm8rev

pm16r

Scale Mean if Scale Variance

Item Deleted

if Item Deleted

39.7200

70.627

39.1600

72.807

38.6800

76.727

38.5600

75.673

39.3600

70.323

39.3600

74.657

39.7600

77.940

39.3200

70.143

40.1200

73.943

39.7600

66.523

39.7200

72.960

39.5200

71.677

40.0400

74.873

39.4000

73.250

38.8000

74.167

39.8000

72.583

39.3200

70.060

38.8400

70.307

Corrected ItemTotal

Correlation

.470

.452

.165

.271

.563

.294

.088

.677

.434

.756

.340

.501

.346

.406

.343

.399

.446

.552

Cronbach’s

Alpha if Item

Deleted

.812

.814

.829

.823

.807

.822

.834

.803

.815

.795

.820

.811

.819

.816

.819

.817

.814

.808

Scale Statistics

Mean

41.7200

Variance

80.710

Std. Deviation

8.98387

N of Items

18

RELIABILITY

/VARIABLES=pm1 pm2 pm3 pm4 pm5 pm6 pm9 pm10 pm11 pm12 pm13 pm14 pm15

pm17 pm18 pm8rev pm16r

/SCALE(‘ALL VARIABLES’) ALL

/MODEL=ALPHA

/STATISTICS=DESCRIPTIVE SCALE

/SUMMARY=TOTAL.

Reliability

Notes

Output Created

Comments

Input

Missing Value Handling

Syntax

Resources

14-MAR-2019 13:01:47

Data

/Users/ejaeger/Desktop/cell

phone.sav

Active Dataset

DataSet5

Filter

Weight

Split File

N of Rows in Working Data

26

File

Matrix Input

Definition of Missing

User-defined missing

values are treated as

missing.

Cases Used

Statistics are based on all

cases with valid data for all

variables in the procedure.

RELIABILITY

/VARIABLES=pm1 pm2

pm3 pm4 pm5 pm6 pm9

pm10 pm11 pm12 pm13

pm14 pm15 pm17 pm18

pm8rev pm16r

/SCALE(‘ALL

VARIABLES’) ALL

/MODEL=ALPHA

Processor Time

Elapsed Time

Scale: ALL VARIABLES

Case Processing Summary

/STATISTICS=DESCRIPTI

VE SCALE

/SUMMARY=TOTAL.

00:00:00.01

00:00:00.00

N

Cases

Valid

Excludeda

Total

%

25

1

26

96.2

3.8

100.0

a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in

the procedure.

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach’s

Alpha

.834

N of Items

17

Item Statistics

pm1

pm2

pm3

pm4

pm5

pm6

pm9

pm10

pm11

pm12

pm13

pm14

pm15

pm17

pm18

pm8rev

pm16r

Mean

2.0000

2.5600

3.0400

3.1600

2.3600

2.3600

2.4000

1.6000

1.9600

2.0000

2.2000

1.6800

2.3200

2.9200

1.9200

2.4000

2.8800

Std. Deviation

1.11803

.91652

1.01980

.89815

.99499

.99499

.86603

.81650

1.05987

1.11803

.95743

.85245

.94516

.95394

1.03763

1.22474

1.01325

N

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

Item-Total Statistics

pm1

pm2

Scale Mean if Scale Variance

Item Deleted

if Item Deleted

37.7600

67.440

37.2000

70.083

Corrected ItemTotal

Correlation

.504

.457

Cronbach’s

Alpha if Item

Deleted

.821

.824

pm3

pm4

pm5

pm6

pm9

pm10

pm11

pm12

pm13

pm14

pm15

pm17

pm18

pm8rev

pm16r

36.7200

36.6000

37.4000

37.4000

37.3600

38.1600

37.8000

37.7600

37.5600

38.0800

37.4400

36.8400

37.8400

37.3600

36.8800

74.543

72.333

68.083

72.167

67.490

71.057

63.917

70.023

69.423

71.493

71.173

71.807

69.640

67.657

67.527

.134

.314

.540

.283

.682

.452

.761

.356

.476

.397

.368

.323

.417

.436

.564

.842

.831

.820

.834

.814

.825

.806

.830

.823

.828

.829

.831

.826

.826

.818

Scale Statistics

Mean

39.7600

Variance

77.940

Std. Deviation

8.82836

N of Items

17

RELIABILITY

/VARIABLES=pm1 pm2 pm4 pm5 pm6 pm9 pm10 pm11 pm12 pm13 pm14 pm15 pm17

pm18 pm8rev pm16r

/SCALE(‘ALL VARIABLES’) ALL

/MODEL=ALPHA

/STATISTICS=DESCRIPTIVE SCALE

/SUMMARY=TOTAL.

Reliability

Notes

Output Created

Comments

Input

14-MAR-2019 13:02:25

Data

Active Dataset

/Users/ejaeger/Desktop/cell

phone.sav

DataSet5

Missing Value Handling

Filter

Weight

Split File

N of Rows in Working Data

File

Matrix Input

Definition of Missing

Cases Used

Syntax

Resources

Processor Time

Elapsed Time

Scale: ALL VARIABLES

Case Processing Summary

N

Cases

Valid

Excludeda

Total

%

25

1

26

96.2

3.8

100.0

a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in

the procedure.

26

User-defined missing

values are treated as

missing.

Statistics are based on all

cases with valid data for all

variables in the procedure.

RELIABILITY

/VARIABLES=pm1 pm2

pm4 pm5 pm6 pm9 pm10

pm11 pm12 pm13 pm14

pm15 pm17 pm18 pm8rev

pm16r

/SCALE(‘ALL

VARIABLES’) ALL

/MODEL=ALPHA

/STATISTICS=DESCRIPTI

VE SCALE

/SUMMARY=TOTAL.

00:00:00.01

00:00:00.00

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach’s

Alpha

.842

N of Items

16

Item Statistics

pm1

pm2

pm4

pm5

pm6

pm9

pm10

pm11

pm12

pm13

pm14

pm15

pm17

pm18

pm8rev

pm16r

Mean

2.0000

2.5600

3.1600

2.3600

2.3600

2.4000

1.6000

1.9600

2.0000

2.2000

1.6800

2.3200

2.9200

1.9200

2.4000

2.8800

Std. Deviation

1.11803

.91652

.89815

.99499

.99499

.86603

.81650

1.05987

1.11803

.95743

.85245

.94516

.95394

1.03763

1.22474

1.01325

N

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

Item-Total Statistics

pm1

pm2

pm4

pm5

pm6

pm9

pm10

pm11

pm12

pm13

Scale Mean if Scale Variance

Item Deleted

if Item Deleted

34.7200

64.377

34.1600

66.807

33.5600

69.423

34.3600

65.157

34.3600

68.907

34.3200

64.643

35.1200

67.443

34.7600

60.690

34.7200

66.627

34.5200

66.093

Corrected ItemTotal

Correlation

.497

.460

.288

.523

.281

.657

.480

.771

.365

.484

Cronbach’s

Alpha if Item

Deleted

.831

.833

.841

.829

.842

.823

.832

.814

.839

.832

pm14

pm15

pm17

pm18

pm8rev

pm16r

35.0400

34.4000

33.8000

34.8000

34.3200

33.8400

68.373

67.417

67.917

66.000

64.477

64.973

.386

.402

.364

.443

.436

.523

.837

.836

.838

.834

.835

.829

Scale Statistics

Mean

36.7200

Variance

74.543

Std. Deviation

8.63385

N of Items

16

COMPUTE amtotalscore=am1 + am2 + am3 + am4 + am6 + am7 + am10 + am12 +

am13 + am15 + am9r + am13r.

EXECUTE.

COMPUTE PMtotalscore=pm1 + pm2 + pm4 + pm5 + pm6 + pm8rev + pm9 + pm10 +

pm11 + pm12 + pm13 + pm14

+ pm15 + pm16r + pm17 + pm18.

EXECUTE.

CORRELATIONS

/VARIABLES=amtotalscore PMtotalscore sastotal

/PRINT=TWOTAIL NOSIG

/MISSING=PAIRWISE.

Correlations

Notes

Output Created

Comments

Input

14-MAR-2019 13:12:20

Data

/Users/ejaeger/Desktop/cell

phone.sav

Active Dataset

DataSet5

Filter

Weight

Split File

N of Rows in Working Data

26

File

Missing Value Handling

Definition of Missing

User-defined missing

values are treated as

missing.

Statistics for each pair of

variables are based on all

the cases with valid data for

that pair.

CORRELATIONS

Cases Used

Syntax

Resources

/VARIABLES=amtotalscore

PMtotalscore sastotal

/PRINT=TWOTAIL

NOSIG

/MISSING=PAIRWISE.

00:00:00.01

00:00:00.00

Processor Time

Elapsed Time

Correlations

amtotalscore

PMtotalscore

sastotal

Pearson Correlation

Sig. (2-tailed)

N

Pearson Correlation

Sig. (2-tailed)

N

Pearson Correlation

Sig. (2-tailed)

N

amtotalscore

1

25

.631**

.001

24

-.643**

.002

21

PMtotalscore

.631**

.001

24

1

25

-.666**

.001

21

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

DATASET ACTIVATE DataSet5.

SAVE OUTFILE=’/Users/ejaeger/Desktop/cellphone.sav’

/COMPRESSED.

sastotal

-.643**

.002

21

-.666**

.001

21

1

22

WRITING A RESULTS

SECTION

IN APA FORMAT

Senior Seminar SSC 498

Spring 2018

What goes in here?

◦ Describes information related to statistical analyses – NOTHING ELSE!

◦ No interpretation of results.

◦ But flow of presentation of results can help build the story that started in the Introduction (e.g.

The results support the hypothesis that XX is negatively related to XX.)

◦ Results section should be thought of as both the narrative and the tables/figures it

includes

◦ They should complement one another; not duplicate

◦ E.g. As can be seen in Table 1, …..

◦ Tables are preferred when there are a lot of data

The Results

◦ Begin with a presentation of the results of the descriptive analyses

◦ Help set an important context for interpreting the results

◦ Restriction of range

◦ Describe any analyses and corrections you did for outliers or violations of assumptions

◦ For continuous variables, present means, standard deviations and also 95% confidence intervals

◦ For categorical variables, present frequencies (by category and cumulative if ordinal data)

◦ Then report results of inferential statistics (tests of hypotheses)

◦ For a lab paper, you can state: “A BLANK test was computed to determine if there was a

relationship between XX and XX.”. The results revealed that XX was (significantly related

to/unrelated to) XX, statistics.

◦ Present the test statistic, the df, the exact p value (unless SPSS says .000 then p < .001), and the
effect size. (sometimes also have confidence interval of the test statistic).
Format
◦ The word “Results” should be centered on page. Do NOT add extra spaces between
Method section and Results section.
◦ Statistical characters are presented in italics (e.g. M, t, r) as is the p for probability value
(e.g. p = 031). See pages 119-122 for symbols.
◦ Note Greek letters – often denoting the value of something in the population (parameter versus
a statistic) – are NOT italicized.
◦ Find the Greek letters in the insert “equations” section in PPT and Word
Format
◦ When you reference a test in the narrative though, use the word - not the symbol.
Means were XX rather than M’s were
◦ Make sure you have appropriate spacing
◦ E.g WRONG p=.031 CORRECT p ...
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attachment