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Reading all reading materials in attachment first.!!! Answer must based in the provided readings!!!two main readings: 1.Rosengarten We Are What We Eat We Are a Nation of Immigrants 2.Lu and Fine The Presentation of Ethnic Authenticitybased one these two, you need read three more readings: 1.Andrews Tasty Melting Pot Easy to Read2.Julian From Mexico Easy to Read3.Stern Fast-food Chains Adapt to Local TastesWrite a research paperReview readings in Attachment, including both popular and scholarly sources, and decide on a related topic to research. Suggested topic:Similarities and differences between the Americanization of two different ethnic cuisinesPlan and complete a first draft based on your researchYou may need more research to complete your argumentYou must create an improved, more complex and interesting thesis in this draft; some students change theses entirelyFormat RequirementsYour paper must: 1) Be double-spaced, with one-inch margins (2.54 cm), and a 12-point serif font like Times New Roman 2) Include an MLA header and page numbers, and an informative title 3) Include an MLA Works Cited page 4) Include parenthetical citations for quotations and paraphrases of other writers 5) Be at least 1000 words long in the final draft(on) 6) Be saved as an electronic file in .doc, .docx, .pdf, or .rtf formatso whole paragraph organization should like thisfor example: (first paragraph: introduction)XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX(Second to N paragraph: main content)XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX(last paragraph: conclusion)XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXIf you have ANY questions pls contact me in [email protected]
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Title:
A TASTY MELTING POT. By: Andrews, Michelle, U.S. News & World Report,
00415537, 8/15/2005, Vol. 139, Issue 6
Database:
Academic Search Premier
A TASTY MELTING POT
Section:
Food & America
IMMIGRANTS
Dateline: ST. PAUL, MINN.
It’s 10 a.m. on a breathlessly hot Sunday morning, but Vallay Moua Varro is too busy to notice
the weather. Standing behind a couple of tables under the roof of an open-air farmers’ market
near downtown, she keeps up a constant patter as she bags bunches of bright-green leaves with
tiny shoots curling around them. “Squash vines and leaves,” she offers with a smile. The Hmong
steam them and add a little garlic, she explains. “If you don’t like them, you’re only out a buck,”
she cajoles two middle-aged women, who buy two bunches. “If we like them,” they tell her,
“we’ll be back!”
More and more Minnesotans are discovering Hmong cooking. The state is home to some 60,000
ethnic Hmong immigrants, many of them refugees who began arriving mainly from Laos after
the Vietnam War. At the farmers’ market, plastic ID placards at each vendor’s table display
names like Vang, Vue, Xiong, and Yang, proclaiming a very different heritage from the region’s
earlier German and Scandinavian farmers. And some of the produce that spills over the tables is
likewise unfamiliar to northern European palates: 2-foot-long, curvy kukuzi squash; dark-green
bitter melon, called “the alligator” by Hmong children because of its wrinkly skin; tiny, fiery red
peppers.
Ethnic eats. Like the English, Irish, Italians, and Germans before them, Hmong immigrants have
brought their own ingredients and traditions to the American table. But not every ethnic cuisine
has had a lasting impact. Today, there are few culinary relics from 19th-century German
immigrants, although a meat-and-potatoes dinner (washed down with beer) remains a classic
American meal. Italian immigrant food, on the other hand, has a devout following, even if it is
not exactly true to its roots, writes John Mariani in his book America Eats Out. Throngs of
southern Italians, arriving in the late 1800s and early 1900s, adapted native dishes to suit
American palates and ingredients, adding more meat and reducing the spice in pizzas and pasta.
The Asian-food invasion began in the mid-1900s. Drawn to the West Coast by the California
gold rush in 1849, Chinese immigrants made a living in food-service businesses, which were
fairly cheap to run and required plenty of hired hands. Soon, “going out for Chinese” became the
hallmark of adventurous dining, though restaurant chow mein, chop suey, and egg foo yong bear
little resemblance to authentic Chinese food.
Chinese food left Americans hungry for more Asian dishes. And there are now plenty of options.
The Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965 turned Asian cuisine into a major force in
American food history by adjusting quotas that favored northwestern Europeans. More
important, it exempted close relatives of immigrants already in the United States from these
quotas. As a result, Asian immigration more than quadrupled by 1970; Asians and Latin
Americans made up 75 percent of the 4 million immigrants to the United States in the ’70s.
Going mainstream. New flavors began finding their way into our restaurants: noodle-based
dishes like the Vietnamese beef soup called pho or the lime- and tamarind-spiked pad Thai,
deep-fried spiced potato-stuffed samosas from India, and preserved Korean vegetables called
kimchi. Some of these immigrant imports have gone mainstream. “Ten years ago, sushi was like,
‘Eew, raw fish!’ ” says Ed Schoenfeld, a Chinese-food expert who specializes in new restaurants.
“Now, everyone’s eating it.”
Latin American food, particularly Mexican dishes like tacos and enchiladas, has made even
greater inroads into the American diet through chains like Taco Bell. But Mexican cuisine
doesn’t have the same allure as Asian. “Latino food is tainted as low class,” says Krishnendu
Ray, professor of liberal arts at the Culinary Institute of America and author of The Migrant’s
Table: Meals and Memories in Bengali-American Households. He believes the socioeconomic
background of immigrants from a particular country plays a role in the eagerness with which
America embraces their foods. For example, even though the number of immigrants from India
has been small relative to other groups, their cuisine is widely available and admired. That’s no
surprise, says Ray, since nearly 60 percent of Indian immigrants are professionals.
As more Americans travel overseas, people are no longer satisfied with an Americanized version
of immigrant food. “We fall in love with Thai food, then we want to come home and re-create
it,” says Karen Page, the author, with husband Andrew Dornenburg, of The New American Chef,
a tour of global techniques and ingredients. At the same time, modern transport and technology
make for easy export of native ingredients. “Now, what you get in a Korean restaurant in New
York and Los Angeles is very close to what you get in Seoul,” says David Rosengarten, author of
It’s All American Food.
Of course, certain “authentic” foods have a hard time finding a fan base, even among
immigrants. Yimeem Vu, the 25-year-old Hmong coordinator for the Minnesota Food
Association, was born in Minnesota after his parents came from Laos in 1978. The family eats
traditional Hmong foods at home, and after a chicken dinner, the final treat is to boil the feet and
eat them. “It’s like chewing on leather,” Vu says. “I like chicken breasts and thighs myself.”
Essay Requirement
Overview
In addition to the requirements of Assignment One, this assignment requires students to develop a scholarly
research program on a topic related to class readings. It also requires students to create an original thesis, and to
relate both scholarly and popular sources to that thesis.
Procedure
To complete this assignment, you must:
1) Write a research proposal
a) Review all course readings in Unit Two, including both popular and scholarly sources, and decide on a
related topic to research. Suggested topics:
i) Authenticity of a particular ethnic cuisine in the US
ii) Similarities and differences between the Americanization of two different ethnic cuisines
b) Write a one-paragraph description of your topic, including your reasons for choosing it, and a
preliminary thesis statement
c) With your description, include an MLA-formatted, preliminary list of four sources that relate to your
topic
i) Two sources must be peer-reviewed academic sources
ii) You may use a maximum of two sources that have been assigned in class
d) Submit this proposal (description plus list of sources) for approval; you may not write a paper on an
unapproved topic
2) Plan and complete a first draft based on your research
a) You may need more research to complete your argument
b) You must create an improved, more complex and interesting thesis in this draft; some students change
theses entirely
3) Complete a second draft based on peer feedback and your own careful reconsideration of your research
Essay Content
Your essay must include:
1) An introductory paragraph that:
a) Introduces the overall topic, and explains why it is important
b) States a clear, narrow, debatable thesis about that topic
c) Briefly notes sources, explaining how each relates to the thesis
2) Well-organized body paragraphs that include:
a) A full description of your topic, including examples wherever possible
b) An informative discussion of your peer-reviewed scholarly sources, that connects each to your thesis
c) (Optional) descriptions of your own experiences with food and eating in the US; spend no more than
half a page on this
3) A conclusion paragraph that summarizes your argument, and explains why it is interesting and relevant to
educated audiences
Format Requirements
Your essay must:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
Be double-spaced, with one-inch margins (2.54 cm), and a 12-point serif font like Times New Roman
Include an MLA header and page numbers, and an informative title
Include an MLA Works Cited page
Include parenthetical citations for quotations and paraphrases of other writers
Be at least 1000 words long in the final draft
Be saved as an electronic file in .doc, .docx, .pdf, or .rtf format
FROM MEXICO CON MUCHO GUSTO:
MEXICAN-STYLE DISHES MAY NOT RESEMBLE THE
ORIGINALS, BUT AMERICANS LOVE THEM
Julian, Sheryl. Boston Globe (pre-1997 Fulltext) [Boston, Mass] 08 Nov 1989: 85.
Mexican food, undisputedly the hottest ethnic craze in the nation, has pervaded menus and
supermarket shelves. Bostonians who were once unfamiliar with the hot and warm seasonings
have embraced them. Chili peppers have found a home in staid chowders, cilantro is sprinkled
over grilled tuna and scattered in chicken salads, tortillas are stylish wrappers for any savory
tidbit — even Maine crabmeat — they can encircle neatly.
The Lampert Report, which tracks nationwide marketing trends, found that sales of Mexican
food — in restaurants, in the frozen food section of supermarkets, and in the grocery section — are
growing at an annual rate of 8.5 percent (faster than any other ethnic foods).
The move to Mexican cooking began gaining momentum in this area about five years ago, but it
has steadily increased in popularity in many regions of the nation in the last 20 years.
A number of the dishes we associate with Mexican cooking — like tacos and fajitas — are
decidedly un-Mexican. But other cuisines have suffered a similar Americanization and survived.
Chop suey, for instance, which began the Chinese food revolution, does not resemble the real
food of China, and pizza was never integral to Italy’s food tradition. Perhaps it was inevitable
that Mexican cuisine — or something called that — should follow a similar pattern. As one
cynical industry watcher wondered, how could America resist a cuisine that took all the
components of the Big Mac, piled them into a bowl, and called it taco salad?
Authentic or not, taco salad, tacos, beef chili, fajitas, burritos, and some other vaguely Mexican
dishes — chiles rellenos, enchiladas, tamales, tostadas and salsas (green, red and mole) — are on
38 million American dinner tables once a week, according to Lampert’s tracking.
Many of these specialties have their roots in the Texas border towns, where the Tex-Mex style
thrives. “They created food with American products and Mexican spices,” explains German
Aguilar, co-owner of Sol Azteca in Brookline, which opened in 1972.
In general, says Aguilar, “anything to do with flour tortillas is usually Tex-Mex. Things done
with corn tortillas are Mexican.” Another difference, he explains, is in the use of seasonings:
Tex-Mex food tends to be more intensely spiced with more fiery chilies.
Many industry watchers tend to lump Mexican and Tex-Mex cooking in one category. On
menus, says Tom Strenk, managing editor of Restaurant Business magazine, the lines between
Tex-Mex and Mexican are blurred. “There’s much swapping around.”
Just how this cooking made its way to the Northeast can be attributed to several phenomena.
“Customers weren’t as terrified about trying new dishes,” says Matthew Rovner, a food service
publicist. Also, he says, “people were traveling more. They brought ideas back with them.” A
cuisine that was salty, filling and cheap to buy was bound to succeed.
Certainly members of the baby boom generation, adventurous restaurant goers, contributed to the
enthusiasm. In addition, says Rovner, the restaurant explosion of 1980 offered an infusion of
different types of cooking. “We started following trends,” he says. Indeed, burritos and
enchiladas were more intriguing tastes on the heels of California pizzas, fried calamari, sushi and
dim sum. And finally, Mexican cooking was making a big hit in Manhattan about seven years
ago.
Once Mexican food hit New York, says Ricardo Baretto of Ricardo y Maria’s Tortilla Factory in
Jamaica Plain, it was only a matter of time before it came to Boston. Barreto, makes a fresh, soft
tortilla in the old Mexican tradition. “Here,” he says, “there’s a mania for chips. In Mexico, two
or three chips accompany other foods. A basket of chips and salsa at the beginning of the meal is
very American. But it’s a wonderful invention.”
Richard Ponte, head of grocery buying for the Stop & Stop chain, says tortilla chips and salsas
are so commonplace in the snack section that no one considers them unusual anymore. “Mexican
is one of the fastest growing ethnic foods in our stores. We used to have only one brand of salsa
in medium heat. Now we three or four brands, available in mild, medium, hot and very hot.”
The demand for Mexican products in the last few years has “grown by leaps and bounds,” says
Bill Jordan, manager for 27 years of Hi-Lo Supermarket in Jamaica Plain, a fully stocked
Hispanic grocery store.
MRCA Menu Census, based in Stamford, Conn., speculates that the taco will be the next pizza -the biggest selling ethnic food item outside the home. Food services in public schools,
universities and corporations have caught on to the taco and its Mexican relations and trade
journals such as Institutional Distribution offer glossaries to help sales people distinguish
between a tostada and a tamale.
In the frozen food section of supermarkets, says a spokeswoman for the Frozen Food
Association, tortillas, enchiladas, burritos and other Mexican specialties are second in sales only
to Italian foods.
Mexican restaurants show growth patterns at twice the rate of other establishments, according to
Re-Count, a report put out by the Restaurant Consulting Group in Evanston, Ill.
Even non-Mexican restaurants weave the cooking into their menu. Danny Wisel of Rocco’s
makes several Mexican-inspired specialties, including queso fundido, a dish of melted Jack
cheese, chorizo sausage and shrimp. “I like the regional food and the family cooking,” says
Wisel.
Wisel has never been to Mexico, yet Mexican-born Richard Barreto of the Tortilla Factory says
Wisel makes authentic country dishes. Barreto claims that there’s little authentic Mexican
cooking in Boston, least of all at the fast-food places.
Three thousand miles from home, the cuisine couldn’t possibly resemble the real cooking of
Mexico, says Restaurant Business magazine’s Stenk. “There are many dishes adapted to
American tastes and ingredients,” he says. “Why should Mexican food be an exception?”
Boston’s Mexican restaurant began to flourish in the late ’60s when Leo Romero opened Casa
Mexico in Harvard Square (it’s no longer there), (CORRECTION: Because of a reporting error, a
story in Wednesday’s Food section incorrectly stated that Casa Mexico, a restaurant in
Cambridge, is no longer open. The restaurant, in fact, is open for business.) followed by Casa
Romero in Back Bay (now owned by William Rodden). Sol Azteca opened in 1972 by Leo
Romero’s chef and manager, German Aguilar and Rafael Osornio.
Nearly 20 years later, says Aguilar, “Mexican is the ‘in’ food now.” Until recently, he could only
get cilantro from one vendor.
In California, says Linda Burum, ethnic restaurant reviewer for the Los Angeles Times, Mexican
food in the “sloppy Joe mentality” has been widespread for decades. Recently an upgraded
version, called Cal-Mex, has been introduced. “American Southwest cuisine,” a gentrified
presentation of the original cowboy food, is the rage in New Mexico.
Drive-in Mexican fast-food restaurants, begun on the West Coast, are all over the nation. Taco
Bell is the largest Mex-fast, with 3,000 units nationwide, six in the Boston area. Dunkin’ Donuts
started Chili’s, family-style restaurants that consider themselves Southwestern; the chain has 12
Northeast outlets.
In Boston today, Mexican restaurants include Guadalaharry’s in Faneuil Hall Marketplace, El
Torito Mexican Restaurant & Cantina in Braintree and Border Cafe in Cambridge.
Mexican cooking just keeps getting better, says LA Times’ Burum. “The Yucetan influence -dishes that use black beans and citrus marinades — is showing up now. The chefs are grilling
ingredients and attending to grease levels.
“Five years ago Mexican food hit New York and everyone said, ‘This is the latest thing!’ In LA,
we all said, ‘ha, ha. We’ve been eating it since we were three.’ ”
The Presentation of Ethnic Authenticity: Chinese Food as a Social Accomplishment
Author(s): Shun Lu and Gary Alan Fine
Source: The Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 36, No. 3 (Summer, 1995), pp. 535-553
Published by: Wiley on behalf of the Midwest Sociological Society
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4120779
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THEPRESENTATION
OF ETHNICAUTHENTICITY:
Chinese Food as a Social Accomplishment
Shun Lu*
Gary Alan Fine
Universityof Georgia
Ethnicentrepreneurs
in American
societyoftencarveoutan economicnicheby meansof
businessenterprises
andculturaleventsthatareopento thegeneralpublicandshowcase
ethnicculture.Theselocationsdependupona displayof theethnicculturethatis simultaandwithinthe boundsof culturalexpectations
neouslyseenas “authentic”
(“AmericanIn
a
that
values
toleration
and cross-cultural
ized”).
contacts,manyconsumers
society
desirea unique,yetcomfortable
Wefocus
experience,
giventheirowncultural
preferences.
on the presentation
of ethnicfood in fourChineserestaurants
in a smallsoutherncity.
Ethnictradition
continues
butin thecontextof a continuous
Authenprocessof adaptation.
is
not
an
butis sociallyconstructed
criterion
andlinkedto expectations.
We
ticity
objective
contrast
twobroadclassesof Chineserestaurants–consumption-oriented
andconnoisseuroriented-todescribestrategies
fitChinesefoodintomarketniches.
bywhichrestaurateurs
We concludeby suggesting
somedirections
forthestudyof publicethnicculture.
In contemporaryAmericansociety, ethnicityis revealed as much by symbolism through
public display as by any other factor. While the display of ethnicitydoes not eliminate its
social psychologicalpowerto affect self-image,much ethnicityis made real throughcultural
transactions:a viable ethnicidentitydependson a set of symbolsand signs, productsof interactionwith othergroups(Royce 1982, p. 6; Gans 1979; Van den Berghe 1984, pp. 393-394;
Isajiw 1990, p. 87). At least in the Americancontext, ethnic identityis socially constructed
and depends on a set of consistentactions that permitsothers to place an individualin an
ethnic category(Alba 1990, p. 75). This is the case even when such culturalplacementdoes
not do justice to the complex and multistrandedlived experiencesof contemporary”ethnic”
actorswhose ethnic experiencesare continuallyshaped(throughacquiescenceor resistance)
by the responsesof membersof the societies in which the ethnic group is embedded(Chow
1993, p. 6; Denzin 1994, pp. 76-77). This process is in actualityquite fluid and negotiated.
The understandingof the dynamicsof “ethnicity”is bolsteredthroughan approachthat
emphasizesthe transactionsbetweenthe “ethnicgroup”andits public. Significantly,many of
the transactionsby which ethnicityis made”real”are economicallygrounded:festivals, restaurants,artgalleries,clothingoutlets,andmusicalvenues.Ethnicityoften becomes a marketmarket.
ing tool, partof an entrepreneurial
We aim to advancethe sociologicalunderstanding
of …
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