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1. How does life experience contribute to “perception” discussed in chapter five on pages
181-187?
2. Consider this statement “Helen Keller, who was both blind and deaf was asked which
disability affected her the most, she replied that blindness separated her from things, while
deafness separated her from people” (Cacioppo and Freberg, 2013, p. 209). As people age,
hearing loss is a normal developmental change.
(A). How does loss of hearing relate to loss of relationships?
(B).
What do you think?
(C).
Does this create a new sense of empathy in the aging process?
3. Ackerman (1990) stated, “Infants who are touched regularly sleep better, remain more alert
while awake, and reach cognitive milestones at earlier ages (Cacioppo & Freberg, 2013, p.
219).
(A). Why is touch important in the human experience?
(B). Does this provide clarity on how nurture and nature interplay?
4. Zuscho (1983) stated, “People who have lost their sense of smell due to head injury often
experience profound depression” (Cacioppo & Freberg, 2013, p. 223). This in opposition to
Immanuel Kant’s position on smell.
Why do you think this occurs?
Axons from the sympathetic nervous system form connections
in the gut, contributing to those butterflies we feel at times of
excitement.
W
I
L
L
I
S
,
K
A
S
S
A
N
D
R
A
2
1
6
1
T
S
9781305461994, Discovering Psychology: The Science of the Mind, Cacioppo/Freberg – © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization.
The
Feeling
Mind
W
I
L
L
Learning Objectives I
1 Differentiate emotion and S
motivation, and analyze their relationship to each other.
, environmental factors that influence hunger and eating.
2 Analyze the physiological and
ea
Motivation and Emotion
3 Assess
ss the
the roles
roles off ev
evo
evolved
olved
d pr
pref
preferences
e ereences an
and
d ph
phys
physiological
ysiologiicall and environmental
envi
en
viro
ronm
nmentaal fa
fact
factors
cto in sexual
moti
tiva
vation, cons
sid
der
erin
ing ho
ow th
this
is m
otivvat
ation varies w
ith
h ge
gende
er aand
nd over time
me.
motivation,
considering
how
motivation
with
gender
time.
K
A
implic
cat
atio
ion
n for
fo life
fe outcomes.
out
utcome
mes.
implication
5 Associate aspects of emotional
with activation of central and autonom
autonomic nervous
S responding wi
system
m structures.
S
6 Evalu
Evaluate
uatte thee rroles
olees o
ol
off na
natu
nature,
ture, nu
nurture,
urturre,, an
and
nd ttheir
heeirr in
interaction
nteeracction
n iin
n eexplaining
xpl
plai
aining human
Aba
comm
municattio
on of eemotion,
motiion
on,
based on rese
earrch
h eevidence.
vid
den
ncee.
communication
research
7 Differentiate major theories
relationship
elaatiion
nship between phys
physical
Nof emotion in terms of the re
sensations and subjective feelings
feelings.
D
R
Motivation and emotion,
the topics of this chapter,
A that often operate below the level of our conscious
involve neural circuits
© Argosy Publishing,
shing, Inc.
4 Comp
Compare
mpaare and cont
contrast
trast achie
achievement
eveme
men
nt and
d aaffiliation
ffi iatiion m
ffil
motivation
otiv
ot
ivat
atio
on in tterms
erms off pr
predictors
red
dicto and
awareness. We don’t decide consciously to feel happy or sad or
hungry or thirsty, but instead, we react somewhat automatically
to the 2
environment around and within us. We can zoom
in to1look at these neural circuits, like these sympathetic
axons
6 (in blue) forming connections with the gut. We
have all had the feeling of butterflies in our stomach
1
when we are excited, and neural pathways like this one
T responsible for such feelings.
are
S Zooming out, we can examine motivation and
emotion in the larger context of the individual using
the example of elite athletes at the Olympic Games. The
2008 Beijing Olympics featured 11,028 athletes who represented the very best in their respective sports, just a tiny
fraction of the millions of people who compete in athletics
worldwide. To stand out among these elites takes even more
© Michael Steele/Allsport/Getty Images
9781305461994, Discovering Psychology: The Science of the Mind, Cacioppo/Freberg – © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization.
287
© Alan
lan Wi
Willi
Williams/Axiom/Aurora
lliams
am /Ax
/A iom
Photos
extreme motivation, not to mention talent and hard work. Many athletes
competing at this level have focused on their sport to the exclusion of
most other activities since they were in elementary school. Yet of the over
11,000 participants, only 1,881 (or 17%) went home with a medal.
Given the odds of obtaining a medal, you would think that
any athlete winning one would be absolutely ecstatic, but that
is not always the case. As you can see in the photograph on the
preceding page of Olympic swimmers on the medal stand, the
athletes are showing a range of emotions. Look for a moment at
the way the three athletes are holding their flower bouquets. The
gold and bronze medalists are holding their bouquets straight
up, but the silver medalist is close to dropping his bouquet. His
entire demeanor
Wsays dejection and disappointment.
Why wouldI a silver medalist be disappointed with such an
exceptional achievement? To answer this question, we must
zoom out evenLfarther from the individual to consider the social
context. Psychologists
have found that the reactions of these
L
swimmers are quite
typical
(McGraw, Mellers, & Tetlock, 2005;
I
Medvec, Madey, & Gilovich, 1995). Apparently, silver medalists
are more likelySto compare themselves to gold medalists, which
,
leads to disappointment,
while bronze medalists are comparing
compar
themselves
fourth-place
not
medal
them
th
emseelv
lves
es to th
thee fou
urth
t -p
pla
lace
ce finishers
fini
fi
n sherrs who do n
ot gett a m
e
at all, which
leads
whic
wh
ich
h lead
adss to
t joy.
joy.
In thi
this
wee wi
his chapter,
chap
pK
ter, w
will
l explore
explo
lorre tthe
he mechanisms
mec
echa
han
nismss responsible
resp
ponsi
A and
for
for ourr motivations
moti
mo
t vaati
tions
and emotions,
em
mot
otio
ions
ns, beginning
beginn
be
nin
ing with
with the
the underlyund
nder
er
ing physical mechanisms
zooming
individual
and
out
to
look
at
individ
S
and, ultimately,
y social influences
influen
nce
ces on these behaviors.
behavviors. E
Emotions are autom
automatic,
matic,
spontaneous reactions tto
o the
world around
d us. We do not wake
up in the morning
rning and consciously
decide to be happy or sad.
emotion A combination of arousal,
physical sensations, and subjective
feelings that occurs spontaneously in
response to environmental stimuli.
288
S
A
N
D
R
A
How Are Motivation
and Emotion Related?
Motivation and emotion are tightly related processes that share the experience of subjective feelings and engage similar processes and structures in
2
the brain. Efforts to differentiate
between motivation and emotion can be
somewhat frustrating, given
their
overlapping characteristics and similar
1
definitions.
6
An emotion is defined as a combination of physical sensations, such
as a rapid heartbeat, and1conscious, subjective feelings, like feeling afraid.
Emotions are spontaneous,
T automatic responses to situations. We do not
wake up in the morning and decide to feel happy or sad in the same way we
S
decide which clothes to wear. Instead, our emotional reactions occur automatically in response to our perceptions of surroundings and situations.
We often communicate our emotions to others through behaviors such as
facial expression, body language, gestures, and tone of voice.
Chapter 7
9781305461994, Discovering Psychology: The Science of the Mind, Cacioppo/Freberg – © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization.
What Does It Mean
to Be Motivated?
© Steve Cole/Photodisc/Getty Images
Emotions can be distinguished from moods. A mood is a more general
state than an emotion. You can be in a good mood while feeling a variety
of specific emotions, such as happiness, pride, or relief. A mood generally
lasts a longer time than a single emotion. For example, when we discuss
disorders of mood in our chapter on psychological disorders, we note that
criteria for depression specify that depressed mood should characterize at
least half a day every day for a period of two weeks (American Psychiatric
Association [APA], 2000). Because emotions are responses to the ongoing
and ever-changing flow of environmental information, it is unlikely that a
single emotion would last this long.
Motivation is defined as a process that arouses,
maintains, and guides behavior toward a goal.
For example, we are motivated to seek a drink W
of water in response to thirst. The process
I
of motivation is accompanied by distinct
L
emotional states. Thirst is generally quite
unpleasant, and taking a drink of water can
L
produce positive emotions like relief and
I
happiness.
S
Motivation and emotion share the abil,
ity to
o arouse an
an organism
orrganism and stimulate
behavior,
vior, but motivation
mo
otivaati
t on does so in
in a more
morre
directt an
and
precise
do.
nd pre
ecise
se fashion
fash
hion than em
emotions d
o..
K
People
le who feel
feel motivated
motivaated
d by thirst
th
hirs
rst are likely
lik
kely
ly
A
to do
o one
one thing—seek
t ing—seek
th
ek outt something
somethi
hing
ng to
to drink.
drin
ink.
k.
In contrast,
experiencing
ontr
on
trast, experienc
cin
ing the emotion of sad- S
ness stimu
stimulates
mullattes behavior,
beha
be
havi
vior
o , but that
at behavior mayy
take manyy diff
different
forms.
people
respond
ffere
rent
n fo
orms. Somee peopl
plee re
resp
pon
ond
d S If we aree thirst
thirsty
ty ffollowing
olllow
wing a toug
tough
ugh
h wo
workout,
ork
rkout, we are motivated
motiva
to
to sadness
byy crying in a room
themselves,
adness b
m by th
themse
elv
lvess, A se
eek a drink
drrink off w
ater. It is u
nlikel
elyy th
that a thirsty person wo
seek
water.
unlikely
would be
whilee others will seek out the com
company
off fr
friends.
mpa
pan
ny o
friend
ndss. N motivated to fifind
instead.
nd
d a hamburger in
nsttead
a .
D
R
A
2
Animals, including human beings, do not have
1 unlimited time and
resources, and a state of arousal is expensive in terms of the energy it
6
requires. Motivational systems allow an animal to be aroused only when
1
necessary, such as when it needs food, and then reduce
arousal following
the solution of a problem, such as after a meal. Preventing
the waste of preT
cious energy resources provides a significant survival advantage. MotivaS
tion also provides the benefit of helping an animal prepare to meet future
needs. Most animals are motivated to explore their environments, because
familiarity with an environment allows them to act more effectively when
a need arises.
motivation A process that arouses,
maintains, and guides behavior toward a
goal.
WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE MOTIVATED?
9781305461994, Discovering Psychology: The Science of the Mind, Cacioppo/Freberg – © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization.
289
© Iain Masterton/Alamy
Many animals are motivated to
explore their surroundings even
when they have no immediate needs,
because being familiar with your
neighborhood saves time when a
ise, whether that
th
hat is food,
fo
ood,
need does arise,
water, shelterr from
orr a ga
gas
m a st
storm, o
as
nolog
gy to h
elp u
al
station. Technology
help
uss dea
deal
with unfamiliar
popular.
ar places is very popular
ar.
homeostasis A steady internal balance,
or equilibrium.
set point A value that is defended to
maintain homeostasis.
drive A state of tension and arousal
triggered by cues important for survival.
drive reduction The state of relief and
reward produced by removing the tension
and arousal of the drive state.
incentive A reward that pulls an
organism’s behavior in a particular
direction.
intrinsic reward A reward that arises
internally.
extrinsic reward A reward from an
outside source.
290
Chapter 7
|
We can think of motivation as a process that
maintains homeostasis, a term introduced by
psychologist Walter Cannon to describe a steady
internal balance or equilibrium (Cannon, 1932).
To achieve homeostasis, organisms actively
defend certain values known as set points. Under
normal circumstances, we carefully regulate such
variables as core body temperature, fluid levels,
and body weight around set points. Deviations
from these set points stimulate behavior by the
organism that is designed to reestablish the original values. You might think about this process as
Wanalogous to your home’s temperature control.
I A set point of air temperature is established
using your thermostat. If your home’s temperaLture drops below that set point, the furnace is
activated until the set point
L is once again established. If your home’s temperature rises above theIset point, the air conditioning system is activated
until the set point is regained. Similarly, if your core body temperature
S C), your body initiates a number of processes
drops below 98.68 F (378
,
designed to increase its temperature,
such as producing heat by the muscle
m
contractions
core
contract
ctio
ions
n wee know
kno
kn
ow as
as shivering.
shivver
ering.
g. IIff yo
your co
oree body
dy ttemperature
emp
em
peraatu
ture
re rises
abovee its
point,
it set poin
nt, cooling
coolling
ng mechanisms
mec
echaani
nisms are activated.
acti
ac
tiva
vated.
d. You
You sweat,
sweaat, and
an the
K
evaporating
moisture
evapo
oraating mois
sture cools
coo
ools your
you
ourr skin.
sk
kin
in. Blood
Bloo
Bl
ood is diverted
div
iveerteed to the
the outer
outter parts
p
of
flushed
of the body,
bod
ody,
y, leading
leadi
ding
ng to
to aA
flush
fl
hed appearance.
app
pea
eara
ranc
nce..
Motivation begins with
ext
S a stimulus, from either the internal or external
environment
organism,
behavior.
environm
nment of the org
ganism, that serves
servves as a cue for motivated
mo
beha
Stimuli
survival,
presence
predator
Stimulli tthat
hatt aare
re iimportant
mpor
mp
ortaaS
ntt tto
o su
surv
rviv
ival
a , ssuch
uch
ch aass th
thee pr
pres
esen
ence of a pred
en
A generate
or a defi
deficit
eficit in body
body
dy fluids,
fluid
flu
ids,
geneeraatee arousal
arou
ousaal and
an
nd tension,
teens
nsio
ion, a state frequently
frequ
referred
Being
drive
propels
organism
ed tto
o as
as drive
driv
dr
ive (Hull,
(Hul
(H
ull,
943)). Bein
ing in a d
rive
ve sstate
tate
ta
te p
ropels the orga
N11943).
into some sort of action related to the stimulus,
stimulus whether
whet
eth
her that means runD to safety or perhaps pulling a bottle of water
ning away from the predator
R thirst. If actions are successful in regaining
from a backpack to quench
equilibrium, we experience
A drive reduction, accompanied by a rewarding
feeling of relief.
Drive theories of motivation are often described as “push” theories, as
drive is seen as pushing2an organism toward a goal. However, not all psychologists agree that motivation
requires the “push” of drive. Instead, they
1
suggest that rewards, or incentives, have the capacity to “pull” an organism
6
in a particular direction. According to this view, animals are viewed as natu1 environment, rather than waiting passively for
rally inclined to act on their
a need to arise (Deci & T
Ryan, 2000). In incentive theories, no reference to
unpleasant internal drive states is required to explain motivated behavior.
S
Incentives or rewards may be intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic rewards
arise internally, such as feelings of accomplishment when a goal is met.
Extrinsic rewards come from outside sources, such as money for completing work or praise from a supervisor. These different types of reward can
interact in complex ways (see ● Figure 7.1). In some cases, certain extrinsic
THE FEELING MIND: MOTIVATION AND EMOTION
9781305461994, Discovering Psychology: The Science of the Mind, Cacioppo/Freberg – © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization.
rewards can have negative effects on intrinsic motivation. For example, if a
child who enjoys reading suddenly gets paid for each book completed, the
child’s enjoyment of reading might decrease because the motivation shifts
from intrinsic (the love of reading) to extrinsic (the love of reward money;
DeCharms, 1968).
Psychologists have studied a wide range of motives, ranging from the
mostly physical motives of temperature control and thirst to the much
more cognitive and social motives to achieve and affiliate with others. We
will explore this range by discussing some specific motives in detail, including hunger, sexuality, achievement, and affiliation. After discussing these
examples, we will examine the ways human beings set priorities when faced
with competing motives.
© Sonia Moskowitz-Globe Photos, Inc./Newscom
W
I
L
Figure 7.1
L
Economist Roland Fryer Asks Whether Incentives Work. HarvardI economist Roland Fryer
overcame a very tough childhood in Daytona, Florida, to become the youngest tenured African
American professor in the history of Harvard University. Drawing onS
his personal experiences, Fryer
experimented
different
mented with differen
nt incentives for a variety of school-related
school related
, behaviors. His results suggest
Locatio
on
Location
DALLAS
What
hat students
were
ere paid for
Reading
Grade level
participating
Second-graders
How much
$2 per book
Average
student earned
$13.81
Study
size*
1,780 from
22 schools
Results
Very Positive
Paying kids to
read dramatically
boosted readingcomprehension scores.
*Not including control groups
K
A
S
S
CHI
HICAG
HICAG
CAGO
O
CHICAGO
A
N
Grades
D
R
Ninth-graders
A
$50 for A’s
$35 for B’s
$20 for C’s
2
1
6
4,396 from
20 schools
1
Mixed
T
Kids cut fewer
classes and got
S
slightly better grades.
$695.61
Standardized test
scores did not change.
WASH
WAS
WASHINGTON
HINGTO
GT
T N
NEW YORK CITY
Various†
Test scores
Sixth-, seventh-,
and eighth-graders
Fourth- and
seventh-graders
Up to $100 every
two weeks
$25 (fourth-graders) to
$50 (seventh-graders) per test
$532.85
$139.43 (fourth-graders)
$231.55 (seventh-graders)
3,495 from
17 schools
8,320 from
63 schools
Positive
Rewarding five different
actions, including
attendance and
behavior, seemed to
improve reading skills.
No Effect
Paying kids for
higher test scores
did not lead to more
learning or better
grades — or any
measureable changes.
© Cengage Learning 2013
that thee relationshipss among
ng intrinsic rewards
rewards,
s, extrinsic
extr
ex
trin
insic re
rewa
rewards,
ward
rds, and
nd behavio
behavior
or can bee quite
qui
uite
te complex.
complex
ex.
Although
rewards
gh previous
pre
revi
viou
ouss research
rese
search has
has shown thatt extrinsic
exxtrinsic rew
warrds can undermine
un
ndeerm
rmine intrinsic
in
ntrin
nsicc motivation, iitt
is important
this
occurs
ortant
nt to
to remember
reemem
mberr that
tha
hat th
his
i result o
cccurs only when
wh
hen behavior
beh
ehavio
or iiss iintrinsically
ntri
nt
r nsiccallly motivated
mottiv
ivat
ated
ed in th
thee
first place.
suggests
paying
might
ace. If children do not intrinsically
intrinssic
i ally enjoy
enj
njoy
oy reading, Fryer
Fryyer sugges
stss pay
yin
ing
g tthem
hem
m tto
o read
dm
igh
ht
work. Unfortunately,
has
been
death
threats
simple
Unfortu
Un
unately, Fryerr h
as bee
en the target
et of
of de
dea
ath th
thre
reat
atss for su
suggesting
ng this si
simp
mple
le ssolution
oluttio
ol
ion to
illiteracy.
cy.
cy
† A combination of metrics that varied from school to
school but always included attendance and behavior
WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE MOTIVATED?
9781305461994, Discovering Psychology: The Science of the Mind, Cacioppo/Freberg – © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization.
291
Hunger is a very complex motive. In comparison to
the regulation of body temperature through processes …
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