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Successful completion of a doctoral dissertation requires significant amounts of independent reading on the research topic. This allows the doctoral learner/researcher to become familiar with the scope of the topic and to identify gaps or tensions within the existing literature on the topic. These gaps and tensions become the source of the dissertation research. In this assignment, you will read and annotate potential sources in your dissertation field of interest. Those demonstrating the most merit to the best of your understanding of the topic at this time should be added to your RefWorks list for potential inclusion in the literature review section of your dissertation.General Requirements:Use the following information to ensure successful completion of the assignment:Locate the assignment submission for “Literature Review Resources” from a previous course, if available. You will add to this document to begin building a running literature review.It is recommended that you engage in this activity throughout the duration of this course.Instructors will be scoring your submission based on the number of unique sources identified in the list submitted.Download the resource “Literature Review Resources Tool” (if needed) and use it to complete the assignment.Doctoral learners are required to use APA style for their writing assignments. The APA Style Guide is located in the Student Success Center.Refer to “Preparing Annotated Bibliographies,” located in the Student Success Center, for additional guidance on completing this assignment in the appropriate style.You are not required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite.Directions:Read at least 10 empirical articles in your general dissertation field that you have not read previously.In the “Literature Review Resources” document, provide the following for each source that you are adding to the document:The APA-formatted citation.A brief annotation of the key points of the source.An indication of whether the source has been added to (Y) or excluded from (N) your RefWorks list.Highlight the additions to the document so the instructor can readily identify them.

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The Relationship between Gender and Drug Abuse among Young Adults
Nicole Daniels
The relationship between gender and drug abuse among young adults
Literature Review Resources
Article Information
Added to
Y or N
Bibliographic Information
Becker, J. B., McClellan, M. L., & Reed, B. G. (2017). Sex
Differences, Gender And Addiction. Journal of Neuroscience
Research, 95(1-2), 136–147.
In this review article, the authors report that drug abuse and
addiction closely tie to both biological and sociocultural
phenomenon. They further state that, although people identify
gender regarding biological differences, masculinity and femininity
as functions of gender get influenced by sociocultural and
developmental factors. The authors also add that both masculinity
and femininity influence one’s tendency to indulge in drug abuse,
the impact of the drugs on the brain, and the duration that one
remains in drug use. As a result, the authors conclude that, although
they do not find a direct relationship between drug use/addiction
and the biologically-defined genders, the sociocultural gender
differences act as a risk factor of drug abuse and addiction.
Bibliographic Information
De Genna, N. M., Cornelius, M. D., & Donovan, J. E. (2009). Risk
Factors for Young Adult Substance Use among Women who were
Teenage Mothers. Addictive Behaviors, 34(5), 463–470.
In this article, the authors seek to explore various risk factors that
expose young mothers and women that became pregnant in their
teens. In this case, the authors identified that predisposing factors
such as depression were relatively high among women that had
become pregnant in their early years, and that ended up showing
top signs of marijuana and tobacco abuse as well as binge drinking.
Further, the authors report that it is often difficult for these young
mothers to recover from drug abuse and addiction. Interestingly,
teen pregnancy and its related depression appear only shared among
females. Although the study does not create a male comparison, the
results show that women may be more exposed. As a result, this
study may produce a robust framework for the upcoming
Bibliographic Information
Greenfield, S. F., Back, S. E., Lawson, K., & Brady, K. T. (2010).
Substance Abuse in Women. The Psychiatric Clinics of North
America, 33(2), 339–355.
In this article, the Greenfield, Back, Lawson & Brady (2010)
explore substance abuse and with a greater focus on women. The
authors note that significant gender gaps exist in the prevalence of
drug abuse and drug-related disorders between males and females
and with the number of men facing these challenges being
sometimes more than the women. However, the authors note that
some unique characteristics of women have led to a rise in their
rates of drug abuse, and that has led to a significant decline in the
gap between the males and women that are facing drug abuse and
drug-related disorders. Some of the factors that the author’s state
include neurological gonadal steroid hormones, differences
between males and females in stress reactivity, eating disorders,
vulnerability to psychological disorders such as post-traumatic
stress disorder, and gender-specific treatment approaches. It is for
these reasons that the authors conclude that, although a relatively
higher number of males are already facing the drug abuse menace,
greater focus should shift to women. This article will be used as a
foundation to understand the differences in the prevalence of drug
abuse between males and females, historical changes in gender
gaps, and the risk factors that women face.
Bibliographic Information
Kelly, B. C., Wells, B. E., LeClair, A., Tracy, D., Parsons, J. T., &
Golub, S. A. (2013). Prescription Drug Misuse among Young
Adults: Looking Across Youth Cultures. Drug and Alcohol
Review, 32(3), 288–294.
In this article, the authors seek to evaluate whether various youth
cultures influence the prevalence of drug abuse. They identify vast
differences in this prevalence of different youth cultures such as
lesbian parties and electronic dance music scenes, among other pop
and mainstream cultures. Coincidentally, some cultures that show a
high prevalence of drug abuse such as lesbian parties are gender
related. This article could thus form a strong foundation for
exploring the role that gender plays in drug abuse and addiction
among young adults.
Bibliographic Information
Khooshabi, K., Ameneh-Forouzan, S.-, Ghassabian, A., &Assari, S.
(2010). Is there a gender difference in associates of adolescents’
lifetime illicit drug use in Tehran, Iran? Archives of Medical
Science : AMS, 6(3), 399–406.
In this article, Khooshabi, Ameneh-Forouzan, Ghassabian&Assari
(2010) focus on the differences in gender among drug users in their
teenage and later years. However, unlike many other studies have
explored in this document, Khooshabi et al. focus on the Asian
region rather than the west. The authors identify a higher tendency
among boys to indulge in drug abuse at a tender age and
subsequently commit to lifetime illicit drug abuse despite facing
similar risk factors to girls. This article could be an essential
addition to synthesis with most other materials in this paper. For
instance, while other documents identify that different genders may
face different risk factors and that differences in their resilience
about any risk factor determine their tendency to engage in drug
abuse, this article shows that the differences in risk factors play no
significant impact. Instead, the resilience of boys in any of these
risk factors tends to be relatively higher, which could then help in
building a robust framework upon which to base the research.
Bibliographic Information
McArdle, P. (2008). Use and misuse of drugs and alcohol in
adolescence. BMJ : British Medical Journal, 337(7660), 46–50.
In this article, McArdle (2008) explores the misuse of drugs and
alcohol among adults. However, the author begins by examining
the causes of substance abuse, how one can identify drug abuse, an
explanation of drug abuse, trends in drug abuse, effects, and
management of drug abuse. Unlike most other research articles
explored in this paper, McArdle focuses on the general adolescent
population rather than the differences in genders among this group.
As such, the results are more generalized. These results could be of
great significance to research as they could compare to other factors
that the rest of the papers have linked to either males or females,
which will then help in understanding the causes of each gender,
the implications, trends, and management of drug abuse based on
the genders.
Bibliographic Information
Merline, A., Jager, J., &Schulenberg, J. E. (2008). Adolescent Risk
Factors for Adult Alcohol Use and Abuse: Stability and Change of
Predictive Value across Early and Middle Adulthood. Addiction
(Abingdon, England), 103(Suppl 1), 84–99.
In this article, the authors seek to identify the risk factors for
alcohol abuse among young adults and the middle-aged. The
authors identify multiple risk factors that lead to a large proportion
of individuals in their early 20s engaging in alcohol abuse. Some of
these include marijuana use, tobacco use, and plan to join college,
among others. Although the authors conclude that some of these
risk factors are variants between males and females, they do not
explore the topic in deep to establish the reason that these
differences emerge. The findings of this article could thus guide the
crafting of the upcoming dissertation and particularly by offering
some of the probable risk factors and predisposing factors that may
vary across genders. In return, exploring these risk factors could
then help in creating more meaningful results.
Bibliographic Information
Polak, K., Haug, N. A., Drachenberg, H. E., &Svikis, D. S. (2015).
Gender Considerations in Addiction: Implications for
Treatment. Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry, 2(3), 326–
PMCID: PMC4578628
In this paper, Polak, Haug, Drachenberg & Svikis (2015) explore
the factors that contribute to differences in drug addiction among
males and females as well as other considerations that one could
make when exploring implications and treatment. Similar to most
other authors in this document, Polak, and associates identify that
males are at a higher chance of engaging in drug abuse than their
female counterparts. Surprisingly, the authors recognize that
implications of drug abuse among females are relatively higher than
in males despite the rates of abuse being relatively lower in women.
As such, the authors suggest that special attention needs to be
accorded to females when developing intervention methods as they
are highly sensitive to the approach chosen. This paper will help in
expounding more on gender differences on not just drug abuse, but
implications as well, which could then assist in developing more
relevant research questions.
Bibliographic Information
Shannon, L. M., Havens, J. R., Oser, C., Crosby, R., &Leukefeld,
C. (2011). Examining gender differences in substance use and age
of first use among rural, Appalachian drug users in Kentucky. The
American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 37(2), 98–104.
In this research paper, Shannon and associates seek to identify the
gaps in the use and age of first use of drugs among young adults.
The authors recognize that males are more likely to engage in binge
drinking, heavy drinking, and use of hard drugs than it is the case
among females. However, a point of interest is the focus on firsttime drug use. For instance, many studies analyzed in this paper
report that many people indulge in alcohol and drug use in their
teenage years. However, Shannon and associates identify from their
exploration of past research and the data that they collect that males
tend to indulge in drug use way before their female counterparts.
The authors recognize that risk factors come at a relatively later
stage among females, which is common across all races and ethnic
groups. This article is an important paper as it could help to build a
foundation of the reasons that more males abuse drugs by
illustrating that they experience risk factors at earlier stages than
females and that their first age of alcohol abuse comes way earlier
than their female counterparts.
Bibliographic Information
Wilsnack, R. W., Wilsnack, S. C., Kristjanson, A. F., VogeltanzHolm, N. D., &Gmel, G. (2009). Gender And Alcohol
Consumption: Patterns From The Multinational Genacis
Project. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 104(9), 1487–1500.
In this article, the authors seek to explore the differences in highvolume alcohol use and addiction across genders. In research that
took ten years, the authors identified that males were more likely to
indulge in heavy drinking as compared to females. At the same
time, the results indicated that men were more likely to drink for
prolonged periods than it was among the women. Interestingly,
these patterns had significant differences across various continents,
an indication that other sociocultural factors could have an
influence. However, it is unfortunate that the authors failed to
explore the factors that contributed to these differences. This
research paper could thus act as a strong foundation and a reference
for the study as a result of its high level of reliability.
Bibliographic Information
Boyer, C. B., Greenberg, L., Chutuape, K., Walker, B., Monte, D.,
Kirk, J., … & Adolescent Medicine Trials Network. (2017).
Exchange of sex for drugs or money in adolescents and young
adults: an examination of sociodemographic factors, HIV-related
risk, and community context. Journal of community health, 42(1),
The author seeks to examine the associations between demographic
factors, community context and HIV risk in young adults and
adolescents who have exchanged sex for money or drugs. The
authors secretly collected data through an anonymous survey in
different community venues where young adults and adolescents
congregate. These venues were in urban locations that are resourcechallenged and have high prevalence rates of STI.The researchers
used Fisher’s exact tests, Conventional descriptive statistics, and
generalized estimating equations to examine the associations. The
authors also identified the prevalence based on different
demographics including gender. Among the participants, 42.2
percent were male. The composition of transgender was 4.6
percent. The authors ensured that they got informed consent from
participants to protect their anonymity. The study contributes to the
research about the exchange of sex among young people and
adolescents to get drugs or money and the influence of gender on
the actions of the individuals.
Pascual, M., Montesinos, J., Marcos, M., Torres, J. L., Costa‐Alba,
P., García‐García, F., &Guerri, C. (2017). Gender differences in the
inflammatory cytokine and chemokine profiles induced by binge
ethanol drinking in adolescence. Addiction Biology, 22(6), 18291841.
In this research, the authors seek to identify how drugs, specifically
heavy binge drinking affects the young adults and adolescents
based on their gender. The authors determine that heavy use of
ethanol can cause long term behavioral and long‐term cognitive
dysfunction. According to the article, some studies done in the
recent past on the effects of ethanol on the brains of adolescents and
young people had indicated different effects on male and female
participants. As such the authors sought to clarify the concentration
of the different interleukins in plasma of both male and female
young adults and adolescents. The researchers related these levels
to the intoxication after the ingestion of high amounts of alcohol.
Besides the increase of chemokines and cytokines, the researchers
found an increase of a colony‐stimulating factor in females.The
results suggested that females are likely to experience the drastic
inflammatory effects of binge alcohol consumption compared to the
males. The researchers also suggest that TLR4forms an essential
part of neuroinflammation and ethanol‐induced inflammation in
Bibliographic Information
Carliner, H., Mauro, P. M., Brown, Q. L., Shmulewitz, D., RahimJuwel, R., Sarvet, A. L., … & Hasin, D. S. (2017). The widening
gender gap in marijuana use prevalence in the US during a period
of economic change, 2002–2014. Drug and alcohol dependence,
170, 51-58.
The authors sought to examine the prevalence rate of drug use and
in specific marijuana based on gender differences. The article states
that the lax attitude that many people have adopted towards
marijuana and the legalization of has made the number of people
using it to rise. The authors also suggest that substance use has
prevailed more for men than women, but currently, the gap is
closing on alcohol.The study seeks to understand if the changing
trends of marijuana use also differ by gender and by other factors
such as income and social, economic status.The authors crossexamine the changes taking place over the years using the repeated
cross-sectional data gotten by the surveys carried out by the NIH
about drug use and abuse between 2002 and 2014. The researchers
found that although the number of users has increased for both
genders, more men use marijuana than women. Also, men with low
income show the highest increase in the use of marijuana during
this period.
Bibliographic Information
Flentje, A., Bacca, C. L., & Cochran, B. N. (2015). Missing data in
substance abuse research? Researchers’ reporting practices of
sexual orientation and gender identity. Drug and alcohol
dependence, 147, 280-284.
In this article, the authors seek to identify if recent substance use
literature is taking into consideration the genders and sexual
orientation of the people and how these factors influence the abuse
of substances. The authors state that the direction and gender of
individuals affect their chances of abusing drugs for example,
lesbian, gay, transgender and bisexual individuals are more likely to
abuse drugs than heterosexual individuals. As such the lesbians,
transgender gay and bisexual people are more likely to have
substance use disorders and to seek treatment for their diseases. The
authors state that despite such information, research literature has
left out sexual orientation and gender impacts on substance use. The
authors reviewed randomly selected articles from various databases.
These articles covered different periods. The authors found that the
researchers fail to consider and report gender and sexual orientation
influence on substance use. They conclude that over the years, the
researchers have not adopted a comprehensive gender influence
Bibliographic Information
Foster, K. T., Hicks, B. M., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2015).
Gender differences in the structure of risk for alcohol use disorder
in adolescence and young adulthood. Psychological medicine,
45(14), 3047-3058.
This paper identifies that gender differences occurring in alcohol
use Disorder have facilitated the differentiated studies of risk
factors and consequences for men and women. In this study, the
authorsseek to testthe differences found in psychosocial risk factors
and the results arising in adolescents and adults after they apply
controls for gender differences in psychological factors and base
rates of AUD.The psychosocial factors that the authors took into
consideration include alcohol and other drug use, deviant peer
affiliation, externalizing and internalizing symptoms, family
adversity, academic problems, adult socioeconomic status, and
attitudes of the spouses/ romantic partners.The researchers found
that at 17 and 29 years of age, the levels of risks and consequences
of psychosocial factors were higher in men.However, the risk
exposure in adolescent years was higher in women than men, and
by adulthood, the results ofAUD were higher for women than
men.Despite the high levels of exposure risk in men, women have
more severe disorders due to Alcohol use.
Bibliographic Information
Crane, N. A., Langenecker, S. A., & Mermelstein, R. J. (2015).
Gender differences in the associations among marijuana use,
cigarette use, and symptoms of depression during adolescence and
young adulthood. Addictive behaviors, 49, 33-39.
The authors examine the relationship between gender, depression
and cigarette use and also how these factors influence the use of
marijuana by adolescent and youn …
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