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The Final Research Paper Key Element Criteria Length Format Title Page A cover page with your research project title, your name, and your institution.Use the title as a header for the entire paper. One page Double-spaced in Times New Roman 12 point font The title page should be numbered and include a running head with the title of your paper in capital letters. View a sample at http://flash1r.apa.org/apastyle/basics/data/resour… Abstract Page A 100 to 300-word summary of the topic, the theory, and general summation of information found in your results related to your specific research questions.Title this page Abstract and do not indent paragraphs. One page Double-spaced in Times New Roman 12 point font with no paragraph indentation View a sample at http://flash1r.apa.org/apastyle/basics/data/resour… (Begin the Introduction on a New Page) Introduction The introduction should provide a general introduction to the topic, a definition of the theory and how it works, and an explanation of why this theory is appropriate for your topic. The introduction should identify the purpose of this paper to discuss specific research questions related to your topic. One or two paragraphs Double-spaced in Times New Roman 12 point font with normal paragraph indentation. Any source information retrieved from your review of literature must be cited using parenthetical citations in APA style. View a sample introduction at http://flash1r.apa.org/apastyle/basics/data/resour… Some resources for formatting parenthetical citations in APA style are found at http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/03/ and at http://www.nova.edu/library/dils/video/TextCitatio…. (New Section) Review of Literature Immediately following the introduction, begin a new section of the paper called Review of Literature. Summarize the information from your peer reviewed journal articles, book chapters, and web sources by synthesizing and discussing related information. Two to three pages Double-spaced in Times New Roman 12 point font with normal paragraph indentation. All source information retrieved from your review of literature must be cited using parenthetical citations in APA style. (New Section) Methodology In a new section called Methodology, describe how you went about analyzing content.Identify the messages you analyzed, how many, and where you obtained them.Identify the variables you examined and their value labels. Up to one page Double-spaced in Times New Roman 12 point font with normal paragraph indentation. (New Section) Results In this section called Results, you will provide the numbers and valid percentages for all the variables you analyzed. One to three pages Double-spaced in Times New Roman 12 point font with normal paragraph indentation. You must provide a narrative of the results, and you may also add tables or charts for illustration. (New Section) Discussion Summarize the key findings that related directly to your research questions in the section called Discussion. Recommendations for future study of this topic. What information needs to be explored further? One to two pages Double-spaced in Times New Roman 12 point font with normal paragraph indentation. Any source information retrieved from your review of literature must be cited using parenthetical citations in APA style. (New Section) Reference List Do not start on a new page, but place your Reference List heading on the next line immediately following your discussion. Provide a reference listing of all sources used in your review of literature. One to two pages Double-spaced in Times New Roman 12 point font with hanging paragraph indentation. View a sample reference list at http://flash1r.apa.org/apastyle/basics/data/resour…
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The Final Research Paper
Key Element
Title Page
Abstract Page
(Begin the
Introduction
on a New
Page)
Introduction
(New Section)
Review of
Literature
Criteria
A cover page with your
research project title,
your name, and your
institution. Use the
title as a header for the
entire paper.
Length
One page
A 100 to 300-word
summary of the topic,
the theory, and general
summation of
information found in
your results related to
your specific research
questions. Title this
page Abstract and do
not indent paragraphs.
One page
The introduction
should provide a
general introduction to
the topic, a definition of
the theory and how it
works, and an
explanation of why this
theory is appropriate
for your topic. The
introduction should
identify the purpose of
this paper to discuss
specific research
questions related to
your topic.
One or two
paragraphs
Immediately following
the introduction, begin
a new section of the
paper called Review of
Literature. Summarize
the information from
your peer reviewed
journal articles, book
chapters, and web
sources by synthesizing
and discussing related
information.
Two to
three pages
Format
Double-spaced in Times New Roman 12 point
font
The title page should be numbered and include a
running head with the title of your paper in
capital letters. View a sample at
http://flash1r.apa.org/apastyle/basics/data/reso
urces/sample-title.pdf
Double-spaced in Times New Roman 12 point
font with no paragraph indentation
View a sample at
http://flash1r.apa.org/apastyle/basics/data/reso
urces/sample-abstract.pdf
Double-spaced in Times New Roman 12 point
font with normal paragraph indentation. Any
source information retrieved from your review of
literature must be cited using parenthetical
citations in APA style. View a sample introduction
at
http://flash1r.apa.org/apastyle/basics/data/reso
urces/sample-introduction.pdf
Some resources for formatting parenthetical
citations in APA style are found at
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560
/03/ and at
http://www.nova.edu/library/dils/video/TextCit
ations6thed/.
Double-spaced in Times New Roman 12 point
font with normal paragraph indentation. All
source information retrieved from your review of
literature must be cited using parenthetical
citations in APA style.
(New Section)
Methodology
(New Section)
Results
(New Section)
Discussion
(New Section)
Reference List
In a new section called
Methodology, describe
how you went about
analyzing content.
Identify the messages
you analyzed, how
many, and where you
obtained them.
Identify the variables
you examined and their
value labels.
Up to one
page
Double-spaced in Times New Roman 12 point font
with normal paragraph indentation.
In this section called
Results, you will
provide the numbers
and valid percentages
for all the variables you
analyzed.
Summarize the key
findings that related
directly to your
research questions in
the section called
Discussion.
One to
three pages
Double-spaced in Times New Roman 12 point font
with normal paragraph indentation.
Recommendations for
future study of this
topic. What
information needs to
be explored further?
Do not start on a new
page, but place your
Reference List
heading on the next
line immediately
following your
discussion. Provide a
reference listing of all
sources used in your
review of literature.
You must provide a narrative of the results, and
you may also add tables or charts for illustration.
One to two
pages
Double-spaced in Times New Roman 12 point font
with normal paragraph indentation. Any source
information retrieved from your review of
literature must be cited using parenthetical
citations in APA style.
One to two
pages
Double-spaced in Times New Roman 12 point
font with hanging paragraph indentation. View a
sample reference list at
http://flash1r.apa.org/apastyle/basics/data/reso
urces/sample-references2.pdf
Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW ON TRUMP BORDER WALL
1
Literature Review on Trump Border Wall
Tyus Wilkerson
USI
LITERATURE REVIEW ON TRUMP BORDER WALL
2
Literature Review on Trump Border Wall
The first time that Donald Trump, President of the U.S. made his case about building a
wall along the border of U.S. and Mexico was in August 2014 when he wrote a tweet as “secure
the border! Build a wall” (Garrett,2018). From the time of the publication, it acts as a reminder
that the Republican president has had time of at least five years to come up with a good argument
in support of his domestic plan. Trump has had an argument that has sometimes been perceived
to be detached from reality. He claims that as the number of attempted illegal border crossings
reduces to generational lows, he claims that there is a looming crisis that cannot be seen by
anyone else apart from him (Dombrowski& Reich,2017). The numbers of illegal crossings
mostly point to violation of visas as the fundamental explanation but Trump pushes an agenda
for a wall that is not related in any way to the underlying issues.
Trump is of the ideology that a wall along the border of the U.S. and Mexico will serve a
long way to ensuring that the asylum-seekers are kept out. However, his idea is sometimes seen
not to make any sense according to the current system as the illegal migrations mostly happen
through legal ports of entry(Dombrowski & Reich, 2017). These entries happen either directly or
through seeking officials of border patrol after getting to the American soil. Trump also argues
that the border wall will help in stopping the illegal trade on drugs, regardless of the
administration for drugs enforcement saying the opposite (Warren& Kerwin,2017). In this
regard, Trump continues to insist that opposing the construction of the border wall is welcoming
crime. He reinforces his ideology by mentioning the entrance of terrorists to the United States
using the Mexico borders. He says that the U.S. incurs at least $250 billion and at most $275
LITERATURE REVIEW ON TRUMP BORDER WALL
3
billion as costs of illegal immigration(Garrett, 2018). He also points out to the fact that Israel has
a wall that serves the country with 99.9% effectiveness. However, Anne Applebaum highlights
that Trump overlooks multiple details in his sentiments. According to Tierney (2019), one of the
aspects that Trump overlooks is that the wall that separates Israel from Palestine in the West
Bank and Gaza is not really a wall; it is a composite obstacle that has multiple layers and is
composed of several fences, barricades, as well as ditches that are frequently patrolled and
monitored by the forces.
However, Tierney(2019) explains that Trump still insists that the country needs to pump
in $5.7 billion to fund the wall to tackle the issue of illegal immigration to the U.S. from Mexico,
mostly due to the fact that the wall was the signature promise he made to the Americans in the
course of his campaign. He insists all these issues regardless of the various oppositions that he
faces(Garrett, 2018). The Democrats term the barrier as a waste of money that is obtained from
American taxpayers. The standoff that arose over funding the wall led to the longest ever
witnessed shutdown of the U.S. government, which tool thirty five days(Dombrowski & Reich,
2017). Trump, however, went on and invoked his emergency powers that allowed him to
appropriate for military funds as well as resources, but his move was expected to face severe
opposition from the Congress. The congress, however, approved has so far approved $1.7 billion
as funds for 124 miles of a new replacement barrier(Warren & Kerwin, 2017). Regardless of the
funding, it is only forty miles of replacements that had been constructed or their construction had
begun by the time 2018 came to an end. More construction of barriers was expected to begin for
another sixty one miles of replacement barriers in this year 2019, which is equal to new sections
LITERATURE REVIEW ON TRUMP BORDER WALL
4
of approximately 15% of the already existing structures (Tierney,2019). The first construction of
extension to the already existing structures, otherwise termed as a new barrier, was expected to
start in February 2019, and the construction was expected to kick start at the Rio Grande Valley
in Texas(Garrett, 2018). Additionally, thirty three miles or fifty three kilometers of barrier,
which is termed as border wall system by the U.S. Customs and Border Protection, is expected to
be put up in the counties of Starr as well as Hildago, which are based at the Rio Grande valley,
whose lengths are eight miles and twenty five miles respectively.
Additionally, there is a resistance to the construction of the wall that is due to the
reduction in the number of apprehensions that are taking place at the southern border, which is
different from the message that President Trump gave in a national address. He said that there
was a need for a wall that would help in stemming a growing humanitarian as well as security
crisis at the U.S.’s southern border, which involves a lot of immigrants (Meckler, 2017). In
exchanges that were held between President Trump and House Democratic Leader known as
Nancy Pelosi as well as the Senate Minority leader known as Charles Schumber, Trump
insinuated that the country was experiencing a lot of pouring through the southern border.
According to Tierney (2019), Trump’s sentiments, are however, perceived as erroneous as
figures indicate that the illegal crossings that take place across the southern border have declined
overall from the year 2000.
An issue that revolves around the construction of the wall is that no person really knows
how much the construction will cost. There are multiple estimates that have been put forward
regarding the cost of the wall by different bodies, both official and unofficial, and they range
LITERATURE REVIEW ON TRUMP BORDER WALL
5
between $12 bn and $70(Garrett, 2018). The initial price tag that Donald Trump placed on the
construction of the wall is at least $8bn and at most $12, which will cover half the length of the
entire border that is widely disputed. The six hundred and fifty miles of fencing that was
constructed under former President George W Bush did cost approximately $7bn, but President
Trump is not satisfied due to his conditions of a tall, beautiful, as well as powerful barrier. In
addition, Trump wants an increment of at least $5.7 bn to the $1.7 bn that is already allocated for
homeland security, most of which the up top funds will be utilized for replacement as well as
new barriers(Dombrowski & Reich, 2017). In this regard, the congress has already approved a
further $1.4 bn for fifty five miles of a new barrier that is to be done in the course of the financial
year to September 2019. The Department of Homeland Security previously made estimations
that a wall that would span the half border would end up costing the country around $25 bn, but
the department is still considering different options for determining the price tag. According to a
message that Tierney (2019) presents from the Customs and Border Protection of the U.S.
(CPB), one mile of constructing the wall is expected to cost at least $6.5m as either new
constructions or replacements of the already in place legacy fence.
Lastly, there have also been changes regarding the type of wall that President Donald
Trump wants constructed as he has made alternate views of the wall he wants in place and what
constitutes a wall(Meckler, 2017). Previously, Trump promised the people of America that his
government would ensure the construction of a big and beautiful wall along the border of
Mexico and the U.S., which acted as a rallying cry in his entire campaign. In his earlier
descriptions, he implied that it would be a concrete wall (Tierney,2019). However, after being
LITERATURE REVIEW ON TRUMP BORDER WALL
6
elected, President Donald Trump started talking about a barrier that would be made of steel, to
ensure that the border agents are able to see through it. In this regard, in October 2017, the
administration of Trump revealed eight wall prototypes that were thirty feet tall, and the
prototypes represented a combination of concrete as well as metal(Garrett, 2018). Trump has
lately presented the idea that he is not interested in building a concrete wall at all; what he wants
is an “artistically-designed steel slats.”
LITERATURE REVIEW ON TRUMP BORDER WALL
7
References
Dombrowski, P., & Reich, S. (2017). Does Donald Trump have a grand strategy?. International
Affairs, 93(5), 1013-1037.
Garrett, T. M. (2018). Where There’s a Wall There’s a Way: The End of Democratic Discourse
regarding Immigration and Border Security Policy. Md. J. Int’l L., 33, 183.
Meckler, L. (2017). Trump Orders Wall at Mexican Border. Wall Street Journal.
Tierney, M. K. (2019). President Trump’s Big, Beautiful Wall: Discrimination, Eminent Domain,
and the Public Use Requirement. Chi.-Kent L. Rev., 94, 179.
Warren, R., & Kerwin, D. (2017). The 2,000 mile wall in search of a purpose: since 2007 visa
overstays have outnumbered undocumented border crossers by a half million. Journal on
Migration and Human Security, 5(1), 124-136.
Running head: REPORTING ON BORDER WALL FUNDING
1
Tyus Wilkerson
Reports on Border Wall Funding: Content Analysis
The controversy surrounding President Trump’s request for border wall funding marked
one of the most prominent stories on American media platforms in the first month of the year
2019. However, while the media extended coverage of the issue for a relatively long time, the
research herein based on content analysis seeks to determine the potential effect of the coverage
on the President’s slipped performance in his popularity in the period preceding the end of the
government shutdown in the New Year period. Consequently, the analysis hopes to delve into
the approaches used in reporting the progress made in the standoff between the executive and
congress, which could have influenced the people’s perception of the issue according to the
cultivation theory.
According to Shrum (2017), the cultivation theory is primarily concerned with the role
played by the media in advancing a particular narrative, in effect influencing the public’s view of
a particular social issue. Notably, the consistent messages on immigration with different sources
of information passing varied opinions through the media could influence the public’s view of
immigrants in effect exemplifying the cultivation theory and its significance to social opinions
(Atwell & Mastro, 2016). Therefore, the analysis of content from different media houses in the
United States with different material available on their internet platforms will appropriately help
determine the significance of information related to border wall funding on the perceptions of the
executive by the public. In particular, an evaluation of the tone used by the different media
sources and the constant sources of information published on the sites, including the opinion
writers, will help determine possible party allegiances on the different websites, which could in
REPORTING ON BORDER WALL FUNDING
effect influence public opinion and the tone used on the news sites. The first month of
undertaking the project will include an exhaustive research of relevant news articles and
evaluation of their authors, while the second month leading up to April 14th will include an the
content analysis and report preparation.
2
REPORTING ON BORDER WALL FUNDING
3
References
Atwell S. A., & Mastro, D. (2016). Media’s influence on immigration attitudes: An intergroup
threat theory approach. Communication Monographs, 83(2), 194-213.
Shrum, L. J. (2017). Cultivation Theory: Effects and Underlying Processes. Rössler, Patrick et
al.(Hg.): The International Encyclopedia of Media Effects. Chichester, West Sussex, UK.

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