Unit I Assignment: Conceptual Experiment WorksheetRunning and Walking ProblemA research team developed a robot named Ellie. Ellie ran 1,000 meters for 200 seconds from the research building, rested for 100 seconds, and walked back to the research building for 1000 seconds. To find out Ellie’s average velocity for each case while running, resting, and walking, begin by plotting a graph between position and time. Complete the Graph: The graph below will show you Ellie’s distance from the research building at a given time. Click the right cursor in the graphic area, and click on “Edit Data,” then select “Edit Data” or “Edit Data in Excel.” The time column is given to you. Enter the data in the distance column by reading the description shown above. The outcome will be shown in the graph. (Click on the links in the Unit I Assignment instructions to access the PowerPoint presentation or the video for help with this assignment). Unit I Assignment QuestionsComplete the Table: There are three different segments for running, resting, and walking, as you can see in the graph above. Use the table below to enter the data and find the velocity for each case. Time interval [sec] Corresponding distance change [meter] Velocity [m/s] Running Resting Walking Questions: Answer the questions below using complete sentences and add space as needed. Distinguish between speed and velocity. List the velocity from greatest to least among running, resting, and walking. List the speed from greatest to least among running, resting, and walking. If the slope in the plot of distance and time is steeper, do you think the speed of the motion is increasing or decreasing? Why do you think so?Your response should be at least 75 words in length. If the slope in the position versus time graph is a curved line, what can you tell about the motion?Your response should be at least 75 words in length.

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UNIT I STUDY GUIDE

About Science and Motion

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit I

Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:

1. Describe standard units of measurement to include components of a valid measurement.

1.1 Differentiate between speed and velocity.

1.2 Identify the components of measuring speed and velocity.

1.3 Interpret the relationship between displacement, velocity, and time.

2. Illustrate the scientific method within everyday situations.

2.1 Investigate how constant-paced linear motion is depicted.

2.2 Record data in charts and graphs in the conceptual experiment.

2.3 Calculate the velocity using data in the conceptual experiment.

Reading Assignment

Chapter 1: About Science

Chapter 2: Newton’s First Law of Motion—Inertia

Chapter 3: Linear Motion

Additional Reading Assignments:

The website below offers more information on Galileo’s experiment. You can see an interactive version of one

of his experiments and try to predict the outcome. In order to access the following resources, click the links

below:

Groleau, R. (2002). Galileo’s experiments. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/physics/galileoexperiments.html

The video below demonstrates how two objects fall at the same speed in a vacuum. In this case, the

experiment takes placed on the moon.

Zane, N. [Nikolas Zane]. (2006, July 5). Feather & feather drop on moon [Video file]. Retrieved from

To view a transcript of this video, click here.

Unit Lesson

Short History of Physics

What is physics? Physics is the basis of other fields of science and encompasses the study of matter, energy,

and the principles that govern the forces between objects. The history of physics, however, is not that long. In

ancient times, scholars led by Aristotle in Greece about 2,300 years ago tried to explain physical phenomena

using the philosophical method. The pioneering research using experiments was opened by Galileo Galilei in

the 16th century, and classical physics came into full bloom with the contributions of Isaac Newton. His

achievements were huge in many fields of science such as optics, astronomy, chemistry, mathematics, and

physics.

PHS 1110, Principles of Classical Physical Science

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Newtonian mechanics work perfectly when we try to describe the macroscopic world in which we live;

however, they fail when we want to explain microscopic phenomena such as X-rays and nuclear radioactivity.

In order to explain the microscopic world, modern theories like quantum mechanics are needed. A central

idea of quantum mechanics is the quantization of all types of energy. The basis of modern physics is, of

course, classical physics, and without concepts of classical physics, we could never understand modern

physics. This makes classical mechanics a very important subject to master.

Galileo (1564 – 1642) was an Italian scientist and is often called the father of physics. He opened a new world

of science through experiments. Unlike Aristotle who ruled the world of science for more than 1,000 years, he

established physics based on observation and measurements. In order to understand relationships between

physical elements, he performed experiments with falling objects, projectiles, inclined planes, and pendulums

(Shipman, Wilson, & Todd, 2009). He found a new view of gravity and overturned old, incorrect ideas about

relationships between mass, velocity, and acceleration in motion. Click on the link below to see more detailed

explanations of his experiments.

Groleau, R. (2002). Galileo’s experiments. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/physics/galileoexperiments.htmlC

Galileo built important and basic concepts of physics such as inertia and acceleration while Newton organized

the laws of motion neatly. That is, the base of physics was prepared by Galileo, and the peak of classical

physics was created by Newton.

According to Aristotle’s logic, there is no motion unless a force is involved; however, this is not true, and this

is proven by experiments. Once the object is moving, there is a tendency for it to keep moving without any

forces. This is called inertia and is the same as the first law of Newton. Unless there are no external forces

and frictions, the object has the property to keep the current state. That is, if an object is in a static motion, it

keeps still without motion. If it is in motion, it continues to move. Here, the mass is a measure of inertia. The

more massive the object, the greater inertia it has. Mass and weight are different concepts. Weight is mass

times gravitational acceleration; weight is a force.

If you roll a ball on an inclined plane with various angles, you find that the ball on a higher angled plane

arrives faster to the bottom than that on a lower angled plane. However, the final speeds of balls at the bottom

are the same regardless of different inclined angles. Galileo introduced the concept of acceleration, the rate of

velocity. The acceleration is the velocity change in a certain time. He calculated the increased velocity per

time of the ball; its acceleration was constant.

Which object will hit the ground first, the heavier or the lighter one? Why is that? If we perform this experiment

in the air, the heavier object hits the ground first because of air resistance. However, they hit the ground at the

same time in a vacuum. This video demonstrates that concept: The video below demonstrates that concept,

and you can access the resource by clicking the link:

Zane, N. [Nikolas Zane]. (2006, July 5). Feather & hammer drop on moon [Video file]. Retrieved from

To view a transcript of this video, click here.

In other words, the free fall objects are merely dependent on the gravity of the earth. The free fall object gains

velocity of 10 meter per second. The value of gravitational acceleration on the surface of the earth is

9.8m/s2(~10m/s2).

Dimensional Analysis

Dimensional analysis is a very useful tool to find out unknown physical formula or quantities. For

instance, say you are trying to figure out the relation among speed (s), distance (d), and time (t).

What is the speed when you travel a distance of 100 km during an hour? Maybe you already know

that speed should be calculated by traveled distance divided by elapsed time, but let us assume we

do not know a proper formula. We can check the equation/relation through dimensional analysis.

Note that an equation must have the same dimension on both sides.

PHS 1110, Principles of Classical Physical Science

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Can you justify which formula is a correct one in the following equations?

(i) s= dt, or

(ii) d=st, or

(iii) t= sd?

The three basic dimensions are length (L), mass (M), and time (T). We can express any physical

quantities using the above. That is, the dimension of distance (d) is length: [L], the dimension of

speed (s) is [L]/[T], and the dimension of time (t) is [T].

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

s=dt [L]/[T] =[L]x [T] = Wrong!

d=st [L]=[L]/[T] x[T] = Correct!

t=sd [T]=[L]/[T]x[L] = Wrong!

So, we found that the correct equation is d=st. The traveled distance (d) can be calculated by the speed of an

object (s) times the traveled time (t).

If we use a different system of units, then it would be very confusing, so it is necessary to adopt normalized

unit systems. And thus, we are using the international system of units (SI Units). The SI unit of length is

meter, time is second, and mass is kilogram. See the chart below for the definition of these units.

Measure

Length

SI Unit

Meter (m)

Time

Second (s)

Mass

Kilogram (kg)

Temperature

Kelvin (K)

Definition

The distance traveled by light in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458

second

The time it takes for radiation from a 133Cs, cesium atom to

complete 9,192,631,770 cycles of oscillation

The mass of the international standard body (a cylinder of

platinum-iridium alloy) preserved at Sevres, France

1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point

of water

Science Versus Pseudoscience

Astrology is not science! It is pseudoscience. Pseudo means false in Greek. Pseudoscience is just pretending

to be actual science. It is based on many scientific ideas, but it fails to explain those using scientific laws.

Astrology claims that there is a relation between humans and celestial objects such as planets, stars, and

moons. An essential property of science is that it must be tested and verified. Astrologers never predict a

person’s future! There is no logical and physical evidence that a person’s life is affected based on a

horoscope. If you are interested in learning more about this subject, watch the video of the famous speech by

Feynman in the suggested reading section of this unit.

PHS 1110, Principles of Classical Physical Science

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Scientific Method

Scientific inquiry must follow the scientific

method. The first step of this method is to create

a logical statement (or question) that defines the

problems. To define the problem correctly,

background research, observations, and the

collection of appropriate knowledge are

necessary and helpful. The next step is to state

or construct a hypothesis. Write a logical

hypothesis, a plausible momentary justification

or an educated guess, that may explain the

question smoothly based on all the current

knowledge. Then, test the hypothesis and

analyze the result. This is done by performing an

experiment, analyzing the result, and developing

an applicable explanation that makes sense.

Finally, make a conclusion or modify the

question and repeat the above steps. Draw a

coherent conclusion after a deep consideration

based upon the results of analysis and

development. Also, point out any areas that you

have suggestions for or further questions about.

The steps of the scientific method

(CK-12 Foundation, 2010)

Velocity/Speed and Acceleration

A fundamental job of physics is to describe the motion of an object. In order to do this, we need some basic

elements to depict motion. These elements are displacement, velocity, and acceleration. Here, we will focus

on the kinematical point of view without consideration of a source that yields the motion. Kinematics involves

the description of motion without examining the forces that produce the motion, and dynamics, on the other

hand, involves an examination of both a description of motion and the forces that produce it. We can say that

physics is all about kinematics and dynamics.

Vectors are quantities that are fully described by both a magnitude and a direction. Meanwhile, scalars are

quantities that are fully described by a magnitude alone. For instance, the number of gallons of gasoline in a

tank, the temperature, your weight, or the population of a country is just a scalar quantity. It is just a number.

If we try to consider a “direction” for these numbers, it is meaningless.

Velocity or speed is the rate at which the position of an object changes. Velocity is a vector quantity because

it includes direction. Speed has no direction, so it is a scalar quantity that refers to how fast an object is

moving. A fast-moving object has a high speed while a slow-moving object has a low speed. An object with no

movement at all has a zero speed. That is, velocity is simply the speed with a direction.

The average speed of an object is the distance traveled by the object divided by the time required to cover the

distance.

Average speed = Distance/Elapsed time.

Acceleration is the rate at which the velocity is changing. The average acceleration is a vector. It equals the

change in the velocity divided by the elapsed time. The change in the velocity is the final velocity minus the

initial velocity. When the elapsed time becomes infinitesimally small, the average acceleration becomes equal

to the instantaneous acceleration.

Both velocity and speed tells how fast the object is. In detail, velocity is a vector that has direction and

magnitude. Speed is a scalar that has only magnitude. The speedometer on a car indicates the speed at that

moment. As the velocity increases, decreases, and the direction changes, the acceleration varies. In that

PHS 1110, Principles of Classical Physical Science

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sense, the car has three systems of acceleration. The gas pedal (accelerator) increases velocity, the brakes

decrease it, and the steering wheel controls the direction of movement.

The fundamental forces

All the different forces observed in nature can be explained in terms of four basic interactions that occur

between elementary particles: gravitational force, electromagnetic force, strong nuclear force, and weak

nuclear force. The main role of the strong force is to hold the nuclei of atoms together. Principally, it is

attractive; however, it can sometimes act in a repulsive way under proper conditions. The strong nuclear

interaction has a very powerful strength of force, but it is very short-ranged, about 10-13 cm. The

electromagnetic force is responsible for electric and magnetic effects. It has both attractive and repulsive

properties. For instance, there is an attractive force between opposite electric charges and repulsive force

between the same charges. It is a somewhat long-ranged force, but much weaker than the strong force. The

radioactive decay or neutrino interactions can be explained by the weak force, and its strength is very weak

with a very short range. The gravitational force works well on a larger scale and is very long ranged, and it

has a distinctive property. It is always attractive, not repulsive.

References

CK-12 Foundation. (2010). The scientific method [Image]. Retrieved from

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Scientific_Method.jpg

Shipman, J., Wilson, J., & Todd, A. (2009). An introduction to physical science (12th ed.). Boston, MA:

Cengage Learning.

Suggested Reading

This video was referenced in the unit lesson. If you are interested in learning more about science versus

pseudoscience, take some time to watch this video.

C0nc0rdance. (2011, July 1). “Cargo cult science” by Richard Feynman [Video file]. Retrieved from

Learning Activities (Nongraded)

Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit

them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information.

To practice what you have learned in this unit, complete the following problems and questions from the

textbook. The answers to each problem can be found in the “Odd-numbered Answers” section in the back of

the textbook. The question number from the textbook is indicated in parentheses after each question.

1. In answer to the question, “When a plant grows, where does the material come from?” Aristotle

hypothesized by logic that all material came from the soil. Do you consider his hypothesis to be

correct, incorrect, or partially correct? What experiments do you propose to support your choice?

(Textbook # 25 on p. 18)

2. Consider a pair of forces, one having a magnitude of 20 N and the other a magnitude of 12 N. What is

the strongest possible net force for these two forces? What is the weakest possible net force?

(Textbook # 50 on p. 37)

3. A monkey hangs stationary at the end of a vertical vine. What two forces act on the monkey? Which,

if either, is greater? (Textbook # 57 on p. 37)

4. A force of gravity pulls downward on a book on a table. What force prevents the book from

accelerating downward? (Textbook # 67 on p. 37)

PHS 1110, Principles of Classical Physical Science

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5. Consider a ball at rest in the middle of a toy wagon. When the wagon is pulled forward, the ball rolls

against the back of the wagon. Discuss and interpret this observation in terms of Newton’s first law.

(Textbook # 81 on p. 37)

6. Because Earth rotates once every 24 hours, the west wall in your room moves in direction toward you

at a linear speed that is probably more than 1,000 kilometers per hour (the exact speed depends on

your latitude). When you stand facing the wall, you are carried along at the same speed, so you do

not notice it. But when you jump upward, with your feet no longer in contact with the floor, why does

the high-speed wall not slam into you? (Textbook # 89 on p. 38)

7. You toss a ball straight up with an initial speed of 30 m/s. How high does it go, and how long is it in

the air (ignoring air resistance)? (Textbook # 35 on p. 53)

8. What is the impact speed of a car moving at 100 km/h that bumps into the rear of another car

traveling in the same direction at 98 km/h? (Textbook # 49 on p. 55)

9. Light travels in a straight line at a constant speed of 300,000 km/s. What is the acceleration of light?

(Textbook # 53 on p. 55)

10. Suppose that a freely falling object were somehow equipped with a speedometer. By how much

would its reading in speed increase with each second of fall? (Textbook # 61 on p. 55)

PHS 1110, Principles of Classical Physical Science

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Unit I Assignment: Conceptual Experiment Worksheet

Running and Walking Problem

A research team developed a robot named Ellie. Ellie ran 1,000 meters for 200 seconds from the

research building, rested for 100 seconds, and walked back to the research building for 1000 seconds. To

find out Ellie’s average velocity for each case while running, resting, and walking, begin by plotting a

graph between position and time.

Complete the Graph: The graph below will show you Ellie’s distance from the research building at a

given time. Click the right cursor in the graphic area, and click on “Edit Data,” then select “Edit Data” or

“Edit Data in Excel.” The time column is given to you. Enter the data in the distance column by reading

the description shown above. The outcome will be shown in the graph.

(Click on the links in the Unit I Assignment instructions to access the PowerPoint presentation or the

video for help with this assignment).

POSITION [METERS]

100

0

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

TIME [ SECONDS ]

900

1000 1100 1200 1300 1400

Unit I Assignment Questions

Complete the Table: There are three different segments for running, resting, and walking, as you can

see in the graph above. Use the table below to enter the data and find the velocity for each case.

Time interval [sec]

Corresponding distance

change [meter]

Velocity [m/s]

Running

Resting

Walking

Questions: Answer the questions below using complete sentences and add space as needed.

1. Distinguish between speed and velocity.

2. List the velocity from greatest to least among running, resting, and walking.

3. List the speed from greatest to least among running, resting, and walking.

4. If the slope in the plot of distance and time is steeper, do you think the speed of the motion is

increasing or decreasing? Why do you think so?

Your response should be at least 75 words in length.

5. If the slope in the position versus time graph is a curved line, what can you tell about the motion?

Your response should be at least 75 words in length.

UNIT I STUDY GUIDE

About Science and Motion

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit I

Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:

1. Describe standard units of measurement to include components of a valid measurement.

1.1 Differentiate between speed and velocity.

1.2 Identify the components of measuring speed and velocity.

1.3 Interpret the relationship between displacement, velocity, and time.

2. Illustrate the scientific method within everyday situations.

2.1 Investigate how constant-paced linear motion is depicted.

2.2 Record data in charts and graphs in the conceptual experiment.

2.3 Calculate the velocity using data in the conceptual experiment.

Reading Assignment

Chapter 1: About Science

Chapter 2: Newton’s First Law of Motion—Inertia

Chapter 3: Linear Motion

Additional Reading Assignments:

The website below offers more information on Galileo’s experiment. You can see an interactive version of one

of his experiments …

Purchase answer to see full

attachment