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Hello this is a Literature review, you have to choose an article from the list that I will send you there is many articles and you can choose one of them. You have to answer the questions below the article. You only choose one article. Please everything you paraphrase add a in text citation with the page number do not forget to cite it. PLS DO NOT FORGET the in text citations and add the authors lastname publishing year and page number. You also need to add an abstract. This should be in APA format. Make sure to follow the rubric. Again choose only one article and for the reference write the edition and where it was published make sure its in APA format. Pay attention to the rubric. Choose one article and I attached the journal articles and the rubric.


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Chapter 1: Diversity in the United States: Questions and Concepts
Unlocking the Benefits of Diversity: All-Inclusive Multiculturalism and Positive Organizational
Flannery G. Stevens, Victoria C. Plaut, and Jeffrey Sanchez-Burks
Journal of Applied Behavioral Science (2008) 44, p. 116
This article explores the various ways that organizations are coping with recent
demographic changes in the U.S. – specifically, the strategies of colorblindness and
multiculturalism. As you read this article, consider the author’s discussion of each of the
organizational models discussed (e.g., colorblindness, multiculturalism, the AIM model,
1. What are some of the benefits and drawbacks of each of these initiatives?
2. Do you agree with the author’s conclusion on which approach or approaches is/are
most effective? Why or why not?
Intersectionality, Critical Race Theory, and the Primacy of Racism: Race, Class, Gender, and
Disability in Education.
David Gillborn
Qualitative Inquiry 2015, Vol. 21(3) 277– 287
This article explores intersectionality as part of critical race theory (CRT) in education.
Gillborn draws on research with Black middle-class parents in England to explore the
intersecting roles of race, class, and gender in mthe construction and deployment of
dis/ability in education. While you read make a note of the key points made about
1. Why does Gillborn suggest racism and race are provocative subjects?
2. Do you agree with is conclusions that intersectionality is a vital aspect of understanding
race inequity in education?
3. How do findings from the Uk translate to the US context?
Diversity in Everyday Discourse: The Cultural Ambiguities and Consequences of ”Happy Talk”
Joyce M. Bell and Douglas Hartmann
American Sociological Review 2007 72: 895 (21 pages)
The authors conduct interviews in four major metropolitan areas to explore popular
conceptions of diversity, detailing how their research revealed understandings that
were undeveloped and often contradictory. On critical point they address is the conflict
generated by the group oriented nature of most rhetorics of diversity, and the deeply
embedded notions of individualism that ground American core values, allowing diversity
to be an abstract concept that is not actualized in individual interactions, particularly
with racialized others. The authors deconstruct the whiteness rubric in order to
understand their findings relative to the intersections of racism and colorblindness in
the contemporary moment.
1. Define diversity, first academically (look in a good sociology text) and second according
to popular interpretation (Google the term).
2. How do you see the individualism that is central to the American mainstream as being
specifically in conflict with these definitions of diversity?
3. What do you think best explains the difference between respondents abstract
definitions of the term diversity (generally positive), and the more ambiguous responses
to questions about respondents’ experiences of diversity?
4. The authors claim that “People have the ability to explicitly talk about race without ever
acknowledging the unequal realities and experiences of racial differences in American
society.” Explain what they mean by this statement, and discuss why this would hamper
a non-racist public discourse about race.
Promoting Respect for Difference on the College Campus : The Role of Interdependence
Gordana Rabrenovic, Jack Levin and Nelly M. Oliver
American Behavioral Scientist 2007 51: 294 (9 pages)
The authors describe an experiment to determine the impact of cooperation and fear of
terrorism on student support for Muslims on a college campus. Designed to test the impact of
interdependence on intergroup relations, particularly on the willingness of students to support
or oppose public policy adversely affecting the lives of Muslim and Arab students, the study
found that participants whose fear of terrorism was low expressed significantly greater support
for Muslim students than did their more fearful counterparts.
1. How well do you think the methods used in this study got at the underlying premise that
fear of terrorism would be a significant indicator of how supportive other students
would be of Muslim students?
2. What specific ways could colleges and universities encourage cooperation among
diverse groups of students?
3. What role do community service programs, like those discussed in this article, have in
education in general? Are these kinds of programs important to students specifically
studying sociology?
Shifting Paradigms : Sociological Presentations of Race
Vicky M. MacLean and Joyce E. Williams
American Behavioral Scientist 2008 51: 599 (27 pages)
This article provides a brief history of theories of race and race relations in the United
States, arguing that the “new” racial paradigms in sociology have been repackaged
around the same background assumptions that grounded the “old.”
1. Define the term “paradigm.” How are paradigms a product of the social context within
which they are devised?
2. What does this brief history of the theories of race and race relations tell us about the
way these concepts have changed in their deployment in the sociological realm?
3. Why is it important to understand the trajectory of change in the paradigms of race and
race relations? What does this understanding enable us to do?
Byng, M. (2008). Complex Inequalities: The Case of Muslim Americans After 9/11. American
Behavioral Scientist, 51(5), 659-674.
This article discusses the redefining of religious minority identity for Muslim Americans after
the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, arguing that when religious identities become a
central focus in American political conflict, they shift from supporting incorporation into society
to facilitating inequality. The article analyzes the ways in which Muslim religious identity has
come to mimic the inequality of race identity, supporting her broader argument that any
identity that designates a group boundary has come to be the ground upon which social
inequality is organized.
Questions to Consider:
1. What specific markers does Byng propose as those most clearly indicative of Muslim
religious identity?
2. How are these identity markers used to construct essentialist images of Islam?
3. In what critical ways do the inequalities focused at Muslim religious identity work like
the inequalities that are racially oriented?
4. How do these kinds of inequalities, either racially based or religiously based, prevent a
society from even beginning a policy of social justice?
Thomas, J. (2014). Affect and the Sociology of Race: A Program for Critical
Inquiry. Ethnicities, 14(1), 72-90.
This article details the idea that race remains a centrally important issue within the social
sciences. However, there are two key problems that continue to surface, particularly in the US
context: a reductivist account of the role of culture in the production of race and racism and the
essentializing of the political identity of racial others. The author proposes an affective
program in order to correct these key problems.
Questions to Consider:
1. Define and detail the 2 key problems relative to race in the social sciences.
2. Describe the affective program as proposed by the author. Do you think this is a
reasonable way to address the problems of race in the social sciences? Why or why
Rocco, T., Bernier, J., & Bowman, L. (2014). Critical Race Theory and Human Resource
Development (HRD): Moving Race Front and Center. Advances in Developing Human Resources,
16(4), 457-470.
This article argues that racism, sexism, and discrimination continue to impact a person’s
complete identity. As proponents of Critical Race Theory, the authors argue that systems and
organizations must engage in radical change, particularly to power structures, in order to
improve conditions for workers. They advocate the abandonment of policies and programs
that are purportedly “race neutral” in favor of an acknowledgement of race and racism as
central to the working of institutions and organizations. They base their conclusions on the
idea that all people have a stake in making racism and bias visible in order to work to eliminate
these problems.
Questions to Consider:
1. What is critical inquiry and why is it an important approach in the study of race
according to Thomas?
2. Briefly describe the four programs that dominate critical race inquiry in the US.
3. What does the author mean by “an affective program”? What are the two central
components of such a program that are identified in the article?
Lee, E., Edwards, S., & La Ferlee, C. (2014). Dual Attitudes Toward the Model’s Race in
Advertising. Journal of Black Studies, 45(6), 479-506.
This article looks at the way a model’s race can affect the way that advertising is viewed and
internalized. The authors compared responses to both African American and Caucasian
American models and the responses of both African American and Caucasian participants. They
found that the amount of time the participants were given to view the advertisements directly
affected the attitudes they reported towards the ads.
Questions to Consider:
1. What were the main differences in the models the researchers chose? Why were these
differences important to the study?
2. Do you agree with the researchers’ conclusions about the dual attitudes of participants
in this study? Why or why not?
Martinez, A., & Merlino, A. (2014). I Don’t Want to Die Before Visiting Graceland: A
Collaborative Autoethnography. Qualitative Inquiry, 20(8), 990-997.
This article details the violent events witnessed by the authors at a hotel in Memphis, TN. They
argue that issues of race, class, gender, and ethnicity are differentially experienced at first
hand, and thus must be simultaneously assessed through subjective experience as well as
objective analysis.
Questions to Consider:
1. What does the title mean? What is a collaborative autoethnography?
2. How do the authors describe the differences in their interpretation of race and class
through the lens of their experience in Memphis? Does it improve their analysis of
these critical issues? Why or why not?
Chapter 2: Assimilation and Pluralism: From Immigrants to White Ethnics
Restifo, S., Roscigno, V., & Qian, Z. (2013). Segmented Assimilation, Split Labor Markets, and
Racial/Ethnic Inequality: The Case of Early-Twentieth-Century New York. American Sociological
Review, 78(5), 897-924.
This article examines the intersection of labor markets and employment trajectories and
rewards by analyzing racial and ethnic inequalities as they were found in New York City
in the years 1910 to 1930. The authors ask whether there is a clear and demonstrated
racial/ethnic hierarchy and group-level variations relative to industrial concentration,
segregation, and discrimination. They illustrate the exclusionary constraints as
experienced by both new white ethnics and African Americans. They conclude with an
examination of the embedded nature of assimilation in the context of labor market
opportunities and relative to historical and contemporary eras.
Questions to Consider:
• What is segmented assimilation as defined by the authors? How was this
experienced by racial/ethnic minorities in New York?
• What is a split labor market? Have the authors supported their point that there
was a clear racial/ethnic hierarchy?
• Explain what the authors mean by “the embedded nature of assimilation in the
context of labor market opportunities and relative to historical and
contemporary eras.”
DeJonckheere, M., Vaughn, L., & Jacquez, F. (2014). Latino Immigrant Youth Living in a
Nontraditional Migration City: A Social-Ecological Examination of the Complexities of Stress and
Resilience. Urban Education, 1-28.
This article examines the strategies Latino immigrant youth employ to deal with the
stress of not having access to culturally relevant services and bilingual education. They
identify the risk factors that are experienced by Latino youth in nontraditional
destination areas, highlighting both cultural and protective factors that lead to resilience
and persistence in goal achievement among these youth.
Questions to Consider:
1. What are the problems that Latino immigrants face when they settle outside of
the traditional migration destinations?
2. Why are new immigrants choosing these new cities?
3. What are the cultural factors that are important to these youth? What are the
stressors that are significant risk factors for them?
4. What do the authors mean by protective factors and how do these factors work?
Lissitsa, S. (2014). Can Online Contacts Between Immigrants and Veterans Facilitate Immigrants’
Social Integration? Ethnicities, 1-25.
This article details research into the question of whether cross-cultural communication
through online social platforms between immigrants from the former Soviet Union and
veteran Israelis helps to reduce social distance and improve the immigrants’ integration.
Questions to Consider:
1. What did the researchers find out about the impact of online contacts on social
2. Was social integration increased by contact through social media?
3. What did the researchers conclude about the impact of social media on
immigrant social distance and integration?
DiPietro, S., Slocum, L., & Esbensen, F. (2014). School Climate and Violence: Does Immigrant
Status Matter? Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 1-24.
This article takes up the question of whether and to what extent school context is a
predictor of violent delinquency for both immigrant and nonimmigrant youth. Using
data from several programs for at-risk youth, the authors assess the impact of four
measures of school climate on violent delinquency.
Questions to Consider:
1. What specifically do the authors mean by school context?
2. Why is school context an important predictor of student behavior?
3. What were the authors’ findings about school context and violent delinquency?
The Role of Religion in the Process of Segmented Assimilation
R. Stephen Warner
The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (2007) 612, p. 100 (12
This article discusses the theory of Segmented Assimilation, and proposes ways that
religion can be incorporated into this theory.
1. What are some examples of the “diverse paths” that assimilation can take in today’s
1. Why does the author believe religion should be incorporated into this process, and what
are some of the benefits and drawbacks of doing so?
2. Does this article advocate assimilation, pluralism, or some combination of these
Constructing Citizenship: Exclusion, Subordination, and Resistance
Evelyn Nakano Glenn
American Sociological Review 2011 76: 1 (25 pages)
This article, the 2010 Presidential Address to the American Sociological Association,
examines the sociological concept of citizenship, arguing that citizenship is not simply a
fixed legal status, but is actually a fluid status that is produced through everyday
practices and struggles. Supported by historical examples, the author’s argument that
the boundaries of membership are critically reinforced, challenged, and articulated in
everyday practice, leads to her contention that undocumented college students
experience a form of insurgent citizenship, one that challenges dominant ideology and
demands an inclusive reconceptualization of the basic tenets of citizenship.
1. Define: formal citizenship, substantive citizenship, and insurgent citizenship. Why are
these distinctions important?
2. How is citizenship “continually constituted and challenged through political struggle”?
3. Why are immigrants entitled to full civil, political, and social rights, including higher
Embeddedness and Identity: How Immigrants Turn Grievances into Action
Bert Klandermans, Jojanneke van der Toorn and Jacquelien van Stekelenburg
American Sociological Review 2008 73: 992 (22 pages)
Arguing that the social and political integration of Muslim immigrants into Western
societies is among the most pressing problems of today, the authors detail research that
documents how immigrant communities are increasingly under pressure to assimilate to
their “host” societies.
1. What special risks do immigrants, particularly Muslim immigrants, face when they begin
any form of collective action?
2. What are the five different antecedents of protest participation identified by the
authors? How does each increase the investment of the individual in collective action?
3. How does the increased pressure to assimilate lead immigrants into engaging in
collective action?
4. What are the factors the authors extracted as meaningful from the literature on
collective action? What are the moderator and mediator effects that qualify these
Hispanic Segregation in Metropolitan America: Exploring the Multiple Forms of Spatial
John Iceland and Kyle Anne Nelson
American Sociological Review 2008 73: 741 (26 pages)
Using data from the 2000 Census, the authors calculate Hispanics’ levels of residential
segregation by race and nativity to examine the association of group characteristics with
those patterns. They find that Hispanics experience multiple and concurrent forms of
spatial assimilation across generations, with some exceptions, suggesting that race
continues to influence segregation despite the general strength of assimilation-related
1. Why is the term “Hispanic” ambiguous? What social factors does the term mask?
2. Describe the general patterns of segregation found in this study.
3. Why do Hispanic race groups show particularly low levels of segregation from nativeborn Hispanics not of their own race? What specific social and cultural factors explain
this phenomenon?
Racial Homogenization and Stereotypes: Black American College Students’ Stereotypes About
Racial Groups
Shayla C. Nunnally
Journal of Black Studies 2009 40: 252 (15 pages)
This article uses the results of the 2004 Black American Socialization and Trust Survey
(BASTS) to examine whether Black American college students view other racial groups in
stereotypic ways. They hypothesize that first, Black college students perceive racial
group-specific stereotypes, and second, that Blacks will esteem their own group in a
more positive light than out-groups. They conclude that “BASTS respondents think of
people generally and Whites specifically as being both less honest and trustworthy than
other Black American, Asian American, and Latino group members,” which suggests that
“Black college students may be less trusting of people generally and Whites specifically”
1. Why is an understanding of how Black Americans perceive positive and negative
stereotypes about other racial groups critically important to the general discourse on
race in America?
2. The author has based her conclusions on “a localized convenience sample of Black
undergraduates.” Do you think the study method and the study results are
generalizable to other college campuses? To other regions of the United States?
3. Did the study confirm the 2 central hypotheses: a) Black college students perceive racial
group-specific stereotypes; and b) that Blacks will esteem their own group in a more
positive light than out-groups?
4. What explanation(s) are given for the fact that BASTS respondents think of people
generally and Whites specifically as being both less honest and trustworthy than other
Black American, Asian American, and Latino group members? Is/are these reasons
compelling? Why?
How Does the Nation Become Pluralist?
Ethnicities 2007 7: 483 (34 pages)
This article proposes a sociolo …
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