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Answer the questions below.
Link to online book if needed: Diffusion of Innovations (Fifth Editions) by Everett M. Rogers
Intial post
1. Response Posts #1
o Explain your analysis.
o Words for this post 200-300
o The discussion is of the printing press and internet social and organizational impacts.
o Our text author looks at such “things” in retrospect and we can utilize his “brain” in our critical thinking.
o With references to/from Rogers (Ch 1, 4), present your assessment of the development for each innovation
o 1. A = Printing Press
o 2. B = Internet
o Include your “experiences” accepting and/or dismissing each..
Initial Post: 200-300 word range is acceptable
Respond to Post 1 & 2 below
2. Response Posts #1
o Explain why you agree or disagree with their analysis.
o Words for this post 150-300
o Support your responses with credible references, where applicable.
A. The printing press was an incredible innovation of its time. It is as important today as it was back then. With time it
has modified to allow society to access text and information with devices in the palm of their hands. I strongly believe
that the way the printing press was diffused into society was the best possible way back then. Starting with religious texts
was a way to appeal to the majority of people so they would then spread the word and become more familiar as well as
accepting of this new printed text concept. In my experience, even with modern technology I know how widely used the
printing press is in today’s age. As an educator just having the available texts in the school is an amazing thing when you
think about where it all started and it is all because the innovation of the printing press.
B. The internet, where do I even begin? Although I was still a child I do remember how big the Internet was as well as
Microsoft. Before the 1990’s computers were expensive and not accessible to every American family. When Microsoft’s
Windows 95 was released more families were financially able to gain computers in their households so the Innovation of
the new technology was widely spread from neighbor to neighbor essentially. According to Rogers (2003), the
socioeconomic status of the people helped Gates innovation of Windows 95 spread like wildfire because it was
something many people wanted and believed they needed at the time (pg. 159). Since many people were purchasing and
using Windows 95, when the Internet Explorer came a week later it was perfectly timed. Most people were getting used
to all the new technology and wanted to keep up with the “Jones” so it was immediately a must have in every computer
owned home. My opinion is that along with the printing press the Internet was widely spread pretty impressively. They
are both something I personally still use everyday so to understand the history of how it came to be is actually pretty
Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations. New York: Free Press
3. Response Posts #2
o Explain why you agree or disagree with their analysis.
o Words for this post 150-300
o Support your responses with credible references, where applicable.
A. Microsoft took what the printing press did, making knowledge available to the masses, and
took that one step further. Prior to the personal computer and the internet, one had to have access to the library or the
money to buy books and printed material, and made all of it readily available at the push of a button. This innovation
has had a few consequences that can be looked at as both positive and negative. Microsoft was able to take operating
systems and use technology that was started by Toshiba and make it “personal” size so everyone could have access at
their own homes and in classrooms across the globe. According to Titcomb, from 1995 to 2001, the about of households
with a computer doubled. The access to knowledge this provided to children and adults alike can be seen as a positive
consequence. A negative consequence is one that we have been seeing since the conception of the internet and the
access to personal computers and that is the access to misinformation. Microsoft is a prime example of skunkworks,
which “is an especially enriched environment that is intended to help a small group of individuals design a new idea by
escaping routine organizational procedures. (Rogers, 149)
B. The printing press was truly the most impactful innovation of modern times that was not really just one idea, but a
combination of previous inventions and innovations. This can be thought of as an example of “a technology cluster.” A
technology cluster “consists of one or more distinguishable elements of technology that are perceived as being
interrelated closely.” (Rogers, 153). The printing press took knowledge out of the hands of the Church and made it
accessible to the masses. It led to more commoners being literate and the spread of knowledge throughout the world.
The implementation of the printing press was brilliant in that it endeared itself to the masses by first printing the Bible
and religious books and then moved to more secular books.
Rogers, Everett M. (2003) Diffusion of Innovation 5thEdition. New York, NY: Free Press.
Titcomb, James (2015). The launch of Windows 95, 20 years ago, redefined home computing and began a golden age for
Bill Gates’ company.
October 14, 2016
Microsoft Corporation: New CEO and New
At the beginning of financial year 2015, the new CEO of Microsoft, Satya Nadella, sent an open email to all
employees titled: “Bold Ambition & Our Core”3.
“The day I took on my new role, I said that our industry does not respect tradition – it only respects innovation. I also said that in order to accelerate our innovation, we must rediscover our soul – our unique core.”
– Satya Nadella
“We’ll use the month of July to have a dialogue about this bold ambition and our core focus. Today, I want
to synthesize the strategic direction and massive opportunity I’ve been discussing for the past few months
and the fundamental cultural changes required to deliver on it.” – Satya Nadella
Satya Nadella outlines a few perspectives on how Microsoft sees the world, and how it has changed. First of
all, Microsoft has changed its view on how it expects the market to move. Nadella states that the market is
moving to be mobile-first and cloud-first.
“We live in a mobile-first and cloud-first world. Computing is ubiquitous and experiences span devices and
exhibit ambient intelligence.” – Satya Nadella
“Developers and partners will thrive by creatively extending Microsoft experiences for every individual and
business on the planet.” – Satya Nadella
“At our core, Microsoft is the productivity and platform company for the mobile-first and cloud-first world.
We will reinvent productivity to empower every person and every organization on the planet to do more and
achieve more.” – Satya Nadella
The case was developed and written by Martin Nejstgaard Grøn, Richard M. Burton, Børge Obel and Dorthe Døjbak
The case has been written as a basis for class discussion. The case cannot be used as an endorsement for organizing
Microsoft or illustration of effective or ineffective management.
Page 1 of 15
October 14, 2016
“The combination of many devices and cloud services used for generating and consuming data creates a
unique opportunity for us. Our customers and society expect us to maximize the value of technology while
also preserving the values that are timeless.” – Satya Nadella
Originally, Microsoft was founded on the belief that technology creates opportunities for people and organizations to express and achieve their dreams by putting a PC on every desk and in every home. The former
CEO, Steve Ballmer defined Microsoft as a device and service company. With mobile-first, cloud-first, the
core of Microsoft remains the same but the market is changing from desk and home to cloud based productivity. By mobile-first and cloud-first, Microsoft is not only thinking of the mobility that consumers want for
their PCs, but actually more the mobility of the individual experience4. By defining Microsoft’s worldview
as ‘mobile-first, cloud-first’, it is moving away from the former CEO Steve Ballmer’s era, where Microsoft’s
focus was ‘devices and services’.
As Nadella speaks about Microsoft’s new focus, he knows this change demands change within Microsoft’s
“Our ambitions are bold and so must be our desire to change and evolve our culture.” – Satya Nadella.
This change demands people to shift jobs within Microsoft, and these shifts demand new training. Employees have expressed that such shifts are challenging. Employees can move around the company to roles where
the individual has most impact and personal growth.
“We have the right capabilities to reinvent productivity and platforms for the mobile-first and cloud-first
world. Now, we must build the right culture to take advantage of our huge opportunity. And culture change
starts with one individual at a time.” – Satya Nadella
The History of Microsoft Corporation
In 1975, Bill Gates and Paul Allen formed a partnership called Microsoft. Like most start-ups, they began
small, but had a huge vision – a computer on every desktop and in every home5. Five years later, IBM approached Microsoft with a request; in response, Microsoft developed the operating system MS-DOS6, which
was launched with IBM’s Personal Computers in 1981. At this time, the MS-DOS system was different from
others as it introduced a completely new language to the general public. After MS-DOS, Microsoft started
developing a new operating system, Interface Manager, more commonly known as Windows 1.0. The name
Windows best describes the interface, which consists of boxes and windows, much like the Windows system
of today. The system also introduced the mouse and the concept of “point and click.” In 1985, Microsoft
shipped the first Windows 1.0. Then things moved quickly. Two years later, they released Windows 2.0,
MS-DOS stands for Microsoft Disk Operating System
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October 14, 2016
and the first software developers wrote their first Windows-based programs. They released Windows 3.0 in
1990 and Windows 3.1 followed in 1992. With Windows 3.0 and 3.1, the system was increasingly used at
work and home, and now included games like Minesweeper. Windows was a 16-bit operating system, but in
1993 Windows NT 3.1 was launched as Microsoft’s first 32-bit operating system. The release was a milestone for Microsoft. It was a strategic business platform that supported high-end engineering and scientific
programs. In 1995, Microsoft released Windows 95, which was the first system to built-in internet support.
The first version of Internet Explorer was also released during 1995. At that time, Bill Gates declared the
Internet as “the most important development since the advent of the PC”7. By 1998, Windows 98, which was
specifically designed for consumers, was launched. Windows XP followed in 2001, Windows Vista in 2006,
Windows 7 in 2009, and Windows 8 in 2012. It is clear now that the Windows operating system played a
significant role for Microsoft Corporation during the first decades.
Today, Microsoft is known, not only for Windows, but also for their development of applications such as
Office (Word, Excel, Outlook, etc.). Microsoft launched their first Xbox in 2001, and followed up with Xbox
360 in 2005 and Xbox One in 2013. Microsoft also developed the search engine Bing, which they launched
in 2009. In 2010, Microsoft launched their first cell phone, Windows Phone 7. Microsoft entered the tablet
market with Surface in 2012.
Microsoft has grown to be one of the biggest technology enterprises in the world and competes on a global
scale. In the fiscal year 2014, the company reached a revenue of $86.833 billion dollars and employed more
than 128,000 people. It is a huge company with the challenge to bring the various pieces of the company
“Microsoft will push into all corners of the globe to empower every individual as a dual user8 – starting with
the soon-to-be 3 billion people with Internet-connected devices.” – Satya Nadella
What does the company do?
Microsoft Corporation is best known for its operating system, Windows, but Microsoft does much more. It
develops, manufactures, licenses, supports and sells computer software, consumer electronics and personal
computers and services. Microsoft is highly respected in the consumer market for making high quality solutions such as operating systems and applications. It has a long list of products and services.
Microsoft was founded on the development of operating systems, and today Windows is the most used operating system in the world. Microsoft developed its first Windows system in the early 80s (MS DOS) and has
People who will use technology for their work or school and also deeply use it in their personal digital life
Page 3 of 15
October 14, 2016
continued the development until today. Microsoft’s newest operating system, Windows 8.1, was followed by
Windows 10 in 20159. Even though Windows is the most used operating system, it is not the only one. Microsoft’s biggest competitor, Apple, has its own operating system for all of its products. Google, too, has
developed its own system, Google Chrome OS. Other competitors are Linux from Linux Foundation and
Ubuntu from Rackspace. However, Microsoft’s most serious competitor may be the Android system, which
covers both smartphones, tablets and smart TVs. 85% of smartphones are using Android. Windows Phone
was launched in 2010 but has yet to break the 5% market share mark.10
Microsoft developed the Office Application, which probably is the most used software tool for both home
and work. Office is an application package, which includes Word, Excel, Outlook, PowerPoint, OneNote,
Publisher and Access. The Office applications are so widely used that it is difficult to say whether there exists any competition in this product category.
Microsoft introduced their first gaming console, Xbox, in 2001 and released its successor, Xbox 360, in
2005. In 2013, the Xbox One was introduced. Xbox is a gaming console, which connects to the users’ TV.
The console was not a new form of gaming, as SEGA already made their first console during the 80s, and
Nintendo released their Nintendo 64 in 1996. However, the Xbox Live was the first online console. This
made it possible for Xbox players to play online with and against each other. Today the Xbox is competing
with Sony’s PlayStation and Nintendo’s Nintendo Wii.
Hotmail (
In 1997, Microsoft acquired the first web-based email service, Hotmail. It was re-launched as MSN Hotmail,
and later on, rebranded as Windows Live Hotmail. Microsoft re-branded it as in 2013, and
refurbished the interface to mimic the interface of Outlook (Office application). Furthermore, the web-mail
has integrated Calendar, OneDrive, People and Skype. The design of is now close to the designs of Windows 8 and Office 2013, and makes the integration through OneDrive more complete.
SkyDrive is a service for computers, tablets, mobile phones, etc. The service is an online folder, where the
user can store pictures or files. The files are stored online, which means they are accessible anywhere. This is
a flexible solution that eliminates the risk of hard disk failures. SkyDrive was originally known as Windows
Live Folders. By 2007 the service expanded, and is well known today. SkyDrive competes with other online
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October 14, 2016
storage services such as Dropbox. The service comes with a limited amount of storage, but additional storage
is added when buying other Microsoft products or services.
Microsoft launched Surface at the tablet market with in 2012. Surface is a combination of a computer and a
tablet. It relies on the processing power of a PC and the flexibility of a tablet. Surface comes in two versions:
the regular Surface and the Surface Pro. The Surface Pro is considered a high-end tablet, whereas the regular
tablet is designed to compete in the tablet market. In 2013, Microsoft revealed Surface 2, and the third generation Surface 3 was announced in 2014.
Windows Phone
Microsoft entered the smartphone competition with Windows Phone 7. The launch was in 2010, but the success was modest. Microsoft launched the latest version, Windows Phone 8.1, in early 2014.
In April 2014, Microsoft bought Nokia’s phone and tablet business. The acquired business was run as a Microsoft division called the Devices Group. Stephen Elop, the former Nokia CEO, heads up the division as its
executive vice president.
In 2009, Microsoft unveiled Bing, previously known as Live Search, Windows Live Search, and MSN
Search. Bing is a search engine, much like and is a service that enable users to search the Internet.
In 2009, Yahoo! and Microsoft announced the replacement of Yahoo! Search Engine by Bing. Eventually,
the Microsoft’s search engine will power Yahoo! permanently.
MSN, originally known as The Microsoft Network, was launched in 1995. MSN is a collection of Internet
websites and services. Today, MSN is a popular web portal, which features varied content such as news,
entertainment, sports, lifestyle, etc.
Microsoft Store
Microsoft Store is both a physical and an online store. The majority of the physical stores are located in the
US. The stores sell products from Microsoft such as Windows, Office, PC’s, etc. The stores also sell products from third parties such as HP and Lenovo. The physical stores provide experts, who service customers
with technical expertise and know-how. The online shopping sites sell the majority of Microsoft’s products.
In addition, the online store sells games for Xbox and accessories for both PC, tablet and Xbox. For PC,
Xbox, and Mobile, there exist online stores, too. These are separated from the online store, and sell games
for each platform. In addition, the Xbox store provides deals for Xbox Live Gold members. The PC store
provides apps for Windows 8 and 8.1 (many of them are free of charge). The mobile version serves as an
open store, where third party developers can sell their apps.
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October 14, 2016
Skype was acquired in May 2013. In a press release Microsoft stated11:
The acquisition will increase the accessibility of real-time video and voice communications, bringing benefits to both consumers and enterprise users and generating significant new business and revenue opportunities. The combination will extend Skype’s world-class brand and the reach of its networked platform, while
enhancing Microsoft’s existing portfolio of real-time communications products and services.
With 170 million connected users and over 207 billion minutes of voice and video conversations in 2010,
Skype has been a pioneer in creating rich, meaningful connections among friends, families and business
colleagues globally. Microsoft has a long-standing focus and investment in real-time communications across
its various platforms, including Lync (which saw 30 percent revenue growth in Q3), Outlook, Messenger,
Hotmail and Xbox LIVE.
Skype will support Microsoft devices like Xbox and Kinect, Windo …
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