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Final Reflectiona) The key strength(s) of your manifesto effortb) The main challenge you took on with the assignment (for yourself as a learner & actor/agent)c) The ways in which you “stretched yourself” for the assignmentd) Your definitions of democracy and democratic practice and how you’ve worked to developthem in greater depth through your work this quartere) Likewise, how have you integrated ideas about youth and new media into your thinking thisquarterf) Complete the following: i) Before my manifesto project I thought… ii) After my manifesto project I know… iii) If people learn one thing from my effort to bring my manifesto to life, it is this…I will upload my essay below. My essay has a problem about I did not use the right reading to write about it. I will also upload two readings below which is the right reading. Can you make some summary about these two readings and connect with my essay topic…The way of research I will use for is the instagram story to ask the question. Like “ Will you do make up at home?If you don’t do make up at home, when will you do it? What does make up mean to you? How do you think it is related to the public life?” This is my thought about the question, you can follow up these kind of question and make your own…Write 2-3 pages essay, double-spaced


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Hong 1
Zhen Hong
Professor Booker
Comm 114D
February 12, 2019
A media artifact refers to an object of study, film camera, photograph or a phonograph
among others. My media artifact is make-up (a make-up is a mask, war pain or other things that
that are mostly worn by women with intention of embellishing themselves because of low self
esteem). It is true that women do spend a lot of money on make-up as compared to men. This has
made numerous supermarkets be filled with glossy magazines featuring beautiful celebrities
dressed in the latest fashion at the same time sporting perfect hair. For example, the celebrities do
have flawless skin, white teeth and even some of them happen to have given birth few years ago
though they appear without any stretch.
Make-ups have gained popularity in all walks of life. In the institutions of higher
learning, no party goes without the party goers rebranding themselves. The venue where the
party is scheduled to take place is always decorated with sparkly royal blue walls and the even
the carpet is pink or has a unique color. Therefore, make-up has a lot of sense to me as a student.
For example, use of make-ups is known to increase individual confidence at the same time
ensure that beauty has been enhanced. On the other hand, some people such as staunch
Christians do not like associating with bodily make ups as they are known to interfere with God
given image. Therefore, I intend to understand why there is extensive use of make-ups in
business, among high school and university students and the need to maintain or change this
culture. It is meaningful to me in the sense that I will get to compare my knowledge on the same
Hong 2
and all the controversies surrounding the topic. Being a common aspect n the society yet not
much written about t, I seek to get as much content as I could so that I can get diverse
perspectives if I have to comment about it in future.
Make-up a media artifact is unique in its own way. It will provide insights as to why it
gained increased attention around the globe. My choice of presentation (poster) is easy as
compared to others.
There is limited literature on make-ups. Notably, make-up is part and parcel of media
artifact that has not been addressed by other scholars. Therefore, this is the appropriate element
for the current scope of work.
At personal level, I do appreciate the fact that a make-up is necessary in any business to
attain a unique competitive edge in the respective industry. For example, companies that have been
manufacturing and selling cosmetics have been able to rely and integrate services of make-ups to
ensure that attraction and retention of customers from various parts of the world becomes a reality.
To some people, this has not been the case. The best case study is university and other tertiary
college students who rely on make-ups for their own personal ambitions and set objectives
(Vandegrift, 2015). It is justifiable that a significant number of people in society have understood
responsible use of make-up as an art to communicate an important message in society. Therefore,
this project is intended to act as a bridge between an individual experience and a social
understanding of make-up.
Make up is actually an art that has not been appreciated for a long period of time. Majority
of people do see and use cosmetics as a vain attempt to change who they are and the physical
features that are associated with. The current project is here to demystify and demolish this belief
that has affected society for a long period of time. Painters do have unique tools that make them
Hong 3
accomplish their objectives of art within the right time frame. For example there is use of palettes
and charcoals as some of the necessary tools to ensure that an artistic work is well communicated
to the target audience. To untrained person with passion in make-up, use of artistic tools is a not a
requirement. Make-up has been used for a long time as an ingredient of painting, sketching, drama,
pottery and photography among others. Some people have been unable to understand correct use
of the tools as per the guidelines of the rules and regulations of art. These are some of the issues
that the current project is meant to create a bridge between personal and social experiences.
Make up is a unique culture with its own history. For example, historical traces of makeup
are traced to cave paintings. The paintings usually consisted of images of the Stone Age activities
and women with portions of their activities colored in reddish brown tones (Azure, 2017). The
body images were meant to create and express different moods, sexual maturity, mourning and
other social circumstances. Make up has been known to be a source of communication and
expression of various feelings. However, this is not the same for current generation. Current project
is intended to address such loopholes that have existed for a long period of time. Evidently, this
project is meant to understand various origins of make up across the globe.
It is known that make ups are traced back to the era of Mesopotamia cultures at the time
cosmetics were used by Sumerians, Assyrians and Babylonians to enhance appearance of their
faces. Later on, Egyptians adopted the idea of social beauty as a unique sign of power (Azure,
2017). To ensure that they had unique cosmetics to serve their unique interests, they relied on
different types of clay, iron oxide and special inks that were applied on body parts with use of
small brushes. Prior the age of renaissance, heavy make- up was considered vulgar. The Asian
cultures have brought about heavy handed and rigid makeup across the globe (Azure, 2017). For
example eyes of women were strongly highlighted in black while the lips were painted red hearted
Hong 4
in shape. This was the same in China and other regions of the world. However, in China women
preferred a much simpler make-up where the eye were painted in black and the lips slightly red in
color. Therefore, these are just but some of the issues that the current project will serve as a bridge
between an individual/personal experience and a social/institutional experience.
The current project is related to two concepts covered in class: cultural citizenship and the
youth. Make-up is one of the current cultures that are associated with majority of youths across
the globe. This is grounded on the fact that youths do share almost same norms, values and
practices. As opposed to old generations, millenials and generation z are known to be associated
with the following: beliefs, behaviors, styles, interests, clothes, sports, vocabulary and the manner
in which they date (Vandegrift, 2015). Indeed the culture of make-up is related to one of the topics
that were covered in week 1 & Week 5 of the course. Notably, make up is also associated with
cultural citizenship as fully discussed during week one and five of the course. During the World
War II, use of make-up among women was a suggestion that they were bound to sex, rape and
prostitution. On the other hand, make-up could signify a sign of female agency and sexual power.
In order to understand make-up as media artifact, data collection is very essential.
Secondary data will be collected by reviewing various scholarly articles in globally respected
online databases such as Google scholar. Information will be obtained from articles not published
more than five years ago. Primary data will be obtained by interviewing randomly sampled
university students to have a clear picture of patterns make up institutions of higher learning not
only in the United States of America but other regions of the world. In order to gather evidence
about the bridge between individual/personal activities or experiences and social/institutional
systems, this will be accomplished by sampling personal opinions of specific target audience such
as music artists known to have a culture of make-up and compare with views of religious societies.
Hong 5
This plan is necessary in helping me to refine my understanding and approach to democratic
practice since I will be supposed to interact with people from various diversified backgrounds
(social, economic and political among others) (Bennett, 2008). This will also provide an
opportunity for me to apply concepts learnt in classroom to electoral processes (KawashimaGinsberg & Levine, 2014). Data analysis will be accomplished by use of both qualitative and
quantitative techniques.
Azure. (2017). The evolution of ancient expression of beauty.
Bennett, W. L. (2008). “Changing Citizenship in the Digital Age.” Civic Life Online: Learning
How Digital Media Can Engage Youth. Edited by W. Lance Bennett. The John D. and
Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Series on Digital Media and Learning. Cambridge,
MA: The MIT Press, 2008. 1–24. doi: 10.1162/dmal.9780262524827.001
Kawashima-Ginsberg, K. & Levine, P. (2014). Diversity in Classrooms: The Relationship
between Deliberative and Associative Opportunities in School and Later Electoral
Engagement. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2014, pp.
Vandegrift, D. (2015). “’We don’t have any limits’: Russian young adult life narratives through a
social generation lens”. Journal of Youth Studies. 19(2):221-236.
Citation: Bennett, W. Lance. “Changing Citizenship in the Digital Age.” Civic Life Online: Learning How Digital Media Can Engage Youth. Edited
by W. Lance Bennett. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Series on Digital Media and Learning. Cambridge, MA: The MIT
Press, 2008. 1–24. doi: 10.1162/dmal.9780262524827.001
c 2008 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Published under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative
Copyright: ⃝
Works Unported 3.0 license.
Changing Citizenship in the Digital Age
W. Lance Bennett
University of Washington, Seattle, Center for Communication and Civic Engagement
Democracy is not a sure thing. Governments and party systems often strain against changes
in societies, and some fall prey to corruption and bad policies. Under the right conditions,
people may reassert their rights to govern, and produce remarkable periods of creative reform, realignment, and change. In these times, politics becomes a focus of personal life itself,
restoring the sense that participation makes a difference. The challenges of influencing the
course of nations and addressing global issues may inspire creative solutions from the generations of young citizens who have access to digital communication tools. The cascading
advance of media platforms and social software enables unprecedented levels of production
and distribution of ideas, public deliberation, and network organization.
It is clear that many young citizens of this digital and global age have demonstrated interests in making contributions to society. Yet the challenge of engaging effectively with
politics that are linked to spheres of government remains, for most, a daunting prospect.
The reasons are numerous. A casual look at world democracies suggests that many of the
most established ones are showing signs of wear. Parties are trying to reinvent themselves
while awkwardly staying the course that keeps them in power. In the press, in everyday
conversation, and often from the mouths of politicians, politics has become a dirty word
rather than a commonly accepted vocabulary for personal expression.1 Perhaps most notably, younger generations have disconnected from conventional politics and government
in alarming numbers. These trends in youth dissatisfaction with conventional political engagement are not just occurring in the United States, but have parallels in other democracies
as well, including Germany, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.2 The pathways to disconnection from government are many: adults are frequently negative about politics, the tone
of the press is often cynical, candidates seldom appeal directly to young voters on their own
terms about their concerns, politicians have poisoned the public well (particularly in the
United States) with vitriol and negative campaigning, and young people see the media filled
with inauthentic performances from officials who are staged by professional communication
managers.3 Paralleling these developments has been a notable turning away from public life
into online friendship networks, gaming and entertainment environments, and consumer
The author would like to thank Peter Levine, Alan Schussman, Cathy Davidson, and Chris Wells for
their helpful comments on this chapter. In addition, the lively discussions both on- and offline among
all the authors in this volume have informed and changed my thinking on many aspects of citizenship
and digital learning. The online discussions with an impressive group of participants further added to
the intellectual stimulation of this project. Thanks to everyone who so generously shared their time and
creative spirits.
Civic Life Online
pursuits. Where political activity occurs, it is often related to lifestyle concerns that seem
outside the realm of government.4
Many observers properly note that there are impressive signs of youth civic engagement in
these nongovernmental areas, including increases in community volunteer work, high levels
of consumer activism, and impressive involvement in social causes from the environment to
economic injustice in local and global arenas.5 Some even ascribe civic engagement qualities
to many activities that occur in online social networking and entertainment communities.
For example, Henry Jenkins, Cathy Davidson, Mimi Ito, and Jochai Benkler argue that many
forms of shared activity online (from blogging, to conflict and protest behavior in gaming,
fan and entertainment sites) represent forms of civic or media engagement.6 The chapter by
Earl and Schussman in this volume makes a good case that online petitions to entertainment
and media corporations constitute a kind of social activism that displays skills mirroring
social movement repertoires of action.
Many of the spontaneous and creative forms of collective expression online seem more
appealing than the options typically offered in youth engagement sites sponsored by governments and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in efforts to invigorate public life
for young people. In Coleman’s concluding chapter in this volume we learn that many
well-intentioned youth engagement sites have clear ideas about what constitute proper citizen activities. As a result, these managed environments seem inauthentic and irrelevant to
many young people. Indeed, Coleman’s survey of managed (government- and NGO-built and
-operated) and autonomous (youth-built and -operated) sites in the U.K. suggests that young
citizens find more authentic experiences in edgier political sites and in entertainment media
and games. The dilemma is that many of the political sites that young people build and
operate themselves may avoid formal government channels for communication and action
and may lack the resources needed to sustain and grow them.
A key question thus becomes how to nurture the creative and expressive actions of a
generation in change, while continuing to keep some positive engagement with government
on their screens.
Two Paradigms of Youth Engagement
One goal of this chapter is to note and explore the sharply differing views of what constitutes civic engagement and citizenship for young people both on and off line. Indeed,
there seem to be two different paradigms that contrast young citizens (roughly in the fifteen to twenty-five age range) as either reasonably active and engaged or relatively passive
and disengaged. Like all paradigms, each foregrounds different core organizing values and
principles, prompting proponents to weigh and select different sets of supporting facts and
reasons. Each paradigm thus comes equipped with its own arguments and evidence, making
it convincing to adherents and elusive and often maddening to those operating from the
other constructed reality.7
The engaged youth paradigm implicitly emphasizes generational changes in social identity
that have resulted in the growing importance of peer networks and online communities.
In this view, if there is an attendant decline in the credibility or authenticity of many
public institutions and discourses that define conventional political life, the fault lies more
with the government performances and news narratives than with citizens who cannot
engage with them.8 In an important sense, this paradigm emphasizes the empowerment
of youth as expressive individuals and symbolically frees young people to make their own
Changing Citizenship in the Digital Age
creative choices. In the bargain, the engaged youth paradigm also eases the overriding duty
to participate in conventional government-centered activities. In many cases, researchers
in this school are only dimly aware of (and may tend to discount) research on declines
and deficits in more conventional political participation among young citizens. As a result,
the engaged youth paradigm opens the door to a new spectrum of civic actions in online
arenas from MySpace to World of Warcraft. By contrast, the disengaged youth paradigm may
acknowledge the rise of more autonomous forms of public expression such as consumer
politics, or the occasional protest in MySpace, while keeping the focus on the generational
decline in connections to government (e.g., voting patterns) and general civic involvement
(e.g., following public affairs in the news) as threats to the health of democracy itself.
A typical exchange in a series of online discussions that accompanied the development of
this volume found Jochai Benkler listing a variety of sites as examples of engaged youth, including the Harry Potter fan publication of the fictional wizard newspaper, the Daily Prophet.
He also offered as evidence a Pew study showing that a majority of bloggers are under thirty,
and roughly one third of them think of what they are doing as journalism. In his view, a
faculty-student network for providing medicines to poor countries “must have missed the
memo about lack of political engagement in today’s youth.”9 In response, Ulises Mejias acknowledged the existence of some forms of civic life on the Web but expressed the following
concerns: “If voting and reading the newspaper are deemed antiquated forms of civic participation, what kind of public sphere is being created by new forms of participation such as
blogging, news aggregating, etc.? . . . the question is: what participant interests mold democracy’s new architecture of participation? . . . Yes, there are important alternative spaces, but as
the Pew study that Yochai cites points out, while a minority is interested in exploiting these
uses for pro-social political action, the majority of users are content to view the technologies
as means for individual expression (articulated through consumer choices).”10
This exchange, along with many others, show that the same evidence can be interpreted
differently when placed in different paradigm frames. One root of the difference is that
the two paradigms reflect different normative views of what the good citizen ought to do
when she grows up. The engaged youth viewpoint, in a sense, empowers young people by
recognizing personal expression and their capacity to project identities in collective spaces.
As Cathy Davidson noted in the online discussions, “. . . I think we have a unique opportunity
to take advantage of peer-to-peer sites for creative, imaginative, activist learning purposes.
That is a lot harder mission than critiquing the young. . . . I want to be attuned to what
youth themselves say about the alternative forms of learning and social networking afforded
by Web 2.0.”11
By contrast, those who lean toward the disengaged youth perspective often worry about
this very personalization or privatization of …
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