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I need you to write an MLA outline (1 page) , an essay (1 page) including the topic, and an MLA works cited (1 page). I attached you a document which contains two sources (named Income Inequity and Social Justice)and the complete text for you if you want to use it. I need you to add those two sources to the Citations Page. Here are the detailed instructions: For this essay, you are going to select an issue that you feel strongly about and explain why you feel strongly about the issue ( I selected income inequity as you can find on the sources I attached to you). This essay will, later on, be used in a larger research paper. The assignment will include an MLA outline (1 page), the essay itself (Max. 2 pages) and an MLA works cited (1 page). The assignment should not exceed four pages.The most important thing is that you fully use your analytical skills in using the appropriate rhetorical structure.
I will be looking to see how well you appeal to your audience and how well you stress the logical and emotional aspects of your association with the person/place. Also, I will be looking for the use of opening and concluding strategies.
The style will be formal, and I want to see how well you can utilize the standards of American Edited English.
I will be looking to see how well you incorporate cause and effect and comparison into your essay.
I will focus on the quality of your introductionThank you! Looking forward!
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INCOME INEQUALITY
Income inequality is an economic condition in which monetary earnings vary greatly among members of
a society, creating a vast disparity in wealth. Income refers to not only wages—the money paid to
employees as compensation for work—but also revenue from other sources, including bonuses, interest
on savings, dividends from investments, profits on sales, and gifts. Income accumulation creates wealth,
which is the total value of assets owned (such as homes, cars, savings, and investments) less the total
amount of liabilities owed (such as mortgages, car loans, student loans, and credit card debt) by an
individual or household.
In the United States, the earnings gap between the wealthiest Americans and the rest of the population
has been growing for three decades. As of 2018, income inequality has approached the peak level it
reached during the Gilded Age—the early twentieth century era when top industrialists built
tremendous fortunes and ordinary laborers worked long hours in difficult conditions for meager wages.
The gap closed significantly during the Great Depression of the 1930s, when a financial collapse wiped
out much personal wealth. In the period of economic prosperity that followed World War II (1939–
1945), Americans shared more equally in the benefits of income growth. By the late 1970s, however,
this situation began to change. Wages for middle- and lower-income workers stagnated while salaries
for corporate leaders continued to grow. Average income for the bottom 90 percent of earners increased
by only 21 percent between 1979 and 2015, yet salaries for the top 1 percent of earners increased by
256 percent during this period.
Sidebar: Hide
Main Ideas








Income refers to wages plus revenue from other sources. Accumulation of income creates
wealth, which is calculated by subtracting the total value of liabilities one owes from the total
value of assets one owns.
Income inequality refers to the gaps between different groups’ median incomes within a
population. Economists use a measure known as the Gini coefficient to rate the equality of
income distribution within a country.
Since the late 1970s, income inequality has widened progressively in the United States, due in
part to the combined effect of wage stagnation among middle- and lower-income workers and
wage growth among the highest income earners.
As wages stagnate, low- and middle-income workers receive increasingly smaller shares of the
benefits of economic growth while wealthy executives and stockholders receive increasingly
larger shares.
Americans tend to overestimate the potential for upward socioeconomic mobility due in part to
the bootstraps myth that underlies narratives like the “American dream,” which characterize the
United States as a land of opportunity for anyone willing to work hard and accept personal
responsibility for their own success.
As the US wealth gap has widened, it has become increasingly difficult for people in lower
economic strata to improve their economic conditions and class status, particularly those for
whom intergenerational poverty is a factor.
People born into upper-middle- and high-income families receive a financial advantage from
intergenerational wealth, which is transferred directly through inheritance and gifting or
indirectly through greater ease of access to resources and opportunities.
In the United States, pronounced racial disparities can be observed in families’ abilities to build
intergenerational wealth. Discriminatory housing policies like redlining have acted historically
as barriers to property ownership for many black Americans. Persistent racial discrimination in


education and employment has served as a roadblock to upward mobility for many Americans
of color.
Proposals to address income inequality include increasing access to higher education for lowincome students, strengthening labor unions and legal protections for workers, creating new or
strengthening existing social welfare programs, and increasing government regulation of
business and finance.
Labor organizers, economists, social workers, and policymakers have put forth arguments in
favor of raising the federal minimum wage, instituting a maximum wage, establishing a
universal basic income, closing corporate tax loopholes, raising taxes on the wealthy, and raising
the estate tax on inherited wealth, among a variety of other approaches and mechanisms aimed
at reducing income inequality.
Drivers and Indicators of Income Inequality
Income inequality in the United States is high in comparison to other developed countries. Economists
use a measure known as the Gini coefficient to rate the equality of income distribution within a country
from 0 (meaning every person earns the same income, or complete equality) to 1 (meaning one person
earns all the income and the rest earn nothing, or complete inequality). According to the Organisation
for Economic Co-operation and Development, in 2016 (the most recent year available), the United States
had a Gini coefficient of .39, indicating that it had higher income inequality than countries such as the
United Kingdom (.35), Germany (.29), and France (.29).
Although income inequality increased globally in recent decades, the pace of change was more rapid in
the United States than in Western Europe. Between 1980 and 2016, the share of total income earned by
the top 1 percent nearly doubled from 11 percent to 20 percent in the United States, while it increased
only slightly from 10 percent to 12 percent in Western Europe. Although the United States had less than
5 percent of the world’s population, by 2017 it had 43 percent of the world’s millionaires and controlled
over 40 percent of the world’s total wealth.
As the rich have become richer, low-income and middle-income Americans have seen their wages
stagnate. In earlier eras of US history, workers’ hourly wages rose steadily along with increases in their
productivity. Between 1948 and 1973, for instance, productivity increased by around 97 percent while
hourly compensation grew by 91 percent. From 1973 to 2015, however, a 73 percent increase in
productivity yielded only an 11 percent growth in hourly wages. Although economic growth continued
to occur in the later period, workers received a smaller share of the benefits of that growth, while
wealthy CEOs and stockholders received a larger share. This situation became particularly pronounced
during the economic recovery following the 2008 recession. Between 2009 and 2012, the incomes of the
top 1 percent grew by 30 percent while those of the bottom 99 percent increased by only 0.5 percent.
Economists cite a number of factors to explain wage stagnation and widening income disparity. Some
argue that globalization has suppressed wages by forcing American workers to compete against lowpaid workers in developing countries. Others blame workplace automation and information technology
for eliminating good-paying jobs in factories and offices. Another theory is that the declining power of
labor unions allowed companies to dictate employment policies and suppress wages. Finally, some
critics claim that decreasing government regulation and taxation of businesses, especially in the
financial sector, enabled corporate leaders to inflate their own salaries, bonuses, and stock options.
Social and Economic Mobility
Income disparity and concentration of wealth have created inequalities in other aspects of American
society. For instance, the extremely wealthy gain a disproportionate level of economic and political
influence by contributing large amounts of money to political candidates and causes. During the first
phase of the 2016 US presidential election, 158 families accounted for half of all campaign contributions.
These families disproportionately lean right, with 138 of them primarily backing Republican candidates
and 20 primarily backing Democratic candidates. According to critics, such contributions corrupt the
democratic process by giving wealthy individuals the opportunity to influence government policy for
their own benefit.
The issue of income inequality is compounded by a lack of socioeconomic mobility. As the wealth gap
has widened, it has become more difficult for people in lower economic strata to improve their
situations in life, particularly in the South and areas in the Rust Belt. In addition, many people born into
high-income families receive a financial boost from the intergenerational transfer of wealth through
inheritance, gifts, and educational opportunities. A 2018 report by the Federal Reserve Board found that
56 percent of all intergenerational transfers of wealth went to people whose wealth already ranked in
the top 10 percent nationally, whereas only 8 percent of transfers went to people in the bottom 50
percent.
Socioeconomic mobility is especially limited for racial and ethnic minorities and other marginalized
groups that have experienced discriminatory treatment throughout US history. Notably, from the 1940s
through the 1960s, the Federal Housing Administration employed a policy known as redlining to deny
mortgage loans to African American families who wanted to purchase homes in suburban
neighborhoods. This policy forced black families to live in racially segregated urban areas and denied
them the benefits of homeownership. Meanwhile, working-class white families purchased suburban
homes and have accumulated wealth as the homes have appreciated in value. Many white families have
used their home equity to finance college educations and provide inheritances for their children, thus
increasing the wealth of future generations. Partly due to this policy, African American wealth was about
5 percent of white wealth in 2017, even though black incomes averaged about 60 percent of white
incomes. In addition, the 400 richest Americans controlled more wealth than all 16 million black
households in the United States combined. Some activists argue that the US government should pay
reparations to African Americans to make up for the lasting economic harm done by centuries of slavery,
segregation, and discrimination.
Surveys suggest that Americans tend to underestimate the extent of income inequality and overestimate
their potential for upward socioeconomic mobility. For generations, people have viewed the United
States as a land of opportunity where anyone who is willing to work hard can overcome their
circumstances and achieve the “American dream” of prosperity. This attitude is particularly prevalent
among Republicans. According to a 2017 Pew Research study, 66 percent of self-identified Republicans
attributed financial success primarily to hard work, while 56 percent attributed poverty to a lack of
effort. Among Democrats, on the other hand, 60 percent attributed wealth primarily to having
advantages in life, while 71 percent said poverty resulted from circumstances beyond a person’s control.
The partisan divide in beliefs about wealth and socioeconomic mobility has many implications for
government policy, particularly with regard to welfare programs designed to help people escape
poverty. Republicans argue that people should “pull themselves up by the bootstraps” and succeed
without “government handouts,” while Democrats argue that the bootstraps myth obscures structural
forces in the US economy that reward the wealthy, penalize the poor, and increase income inequality.
Policy and Future Directions
Proposed solutions to income inequality include increasing access to higher education for students from
low-income families, strengthening labor unions and legal protections for workers, and increasing
government regulation of business and finance. Another popular proposal involves increasing the
federal minimum wage from $7.25 per hour, which provides an annual household income well below
the poverty level, to $12 per hour by 2020. The Economic Policy Institute notes that 35 million
Americans would receive raises under this plan, which they assert would increase worker productivity,
boost consumer spending, and lead to economic growth. Although opponents claim that raising the
minimum wage would harm small businesses and decrease entry-level job opportunities, some states
and municipalities have already increased their minimum wages to $15 per hour or implemented plans
to incrementally increase the minimum wage over several years.
Another proposal to address income inequality involves instituting a maximum wage, in the form of a
100 percent tax on income above a certain level. In 2018 the Securities and Exchange Commission
enacted a regulation requiring US corporations to disclose the ratio of total CEO compensation to the
median wage of a typical worker. As large corporations began disclosing this information, it raised
public awareness of the vast discrepancy in pay between top management and workers. Honeywell, for
instance, revealed a pay ratio of 333:1, meaning that the CEO earned nearly as much in one day as an
average worker did in a year. Critics argue that executive pay should be capped at a certain multiple of
minimum wage to give wealthy individuals incentive to raise the income of workers.
Many approaches to reducing income inequality involve revising the tax code in ways that allow lowincome people to keep more of their wages and require wealthy people to pay more in taxes. Some
economists suggest increasing the estate tax on inherited wealth. Others propose eliminating the carried
interest loophole that allows billionaire financial managers to treat their income as investments, which
are subject to a lower tax rate. Critics of the tax reform bill signed into law by President Donald Trump
in 2017 claim that it will exacerbate income inequality by reducing taxes on wealthy Americans and
large corporations. They argue that 34 percent of the tax benefits go to people in the top 1 percent
income bracket and 70 percent of the benefits accrue to the top 20 percent of earners.
Source Citation
(MLA 8th Edition)
“Income Inequality.” Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection, Gale, 2018. Opposing Viewpoints in Context,
http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/MSXFTQ671495757/OVIC?u=lincclin_mdcc&sid=OVIC&xid=d2f5afe2 .
Accessed 27 Mar. 2019.
SOCIAL JUSTICE
The concept of social justice is founded on the belief that all people merit equal rights and dignified
treatment. In a socially just community, all people would reap communal benefits and shoulder
communal burdens by sharing responsibility as social actors. Social justice is a broad concept in that it
seeks to end discrimination against all marginalized communities, which are discussed individually
using identity categories such as race, gender, sexual orientation, disability, religion, and age, among
others. The negative stereotypes and prejudiced attitudes that accompany racism, sexism, ageism,
heterosexism, ableism, and religious intolerance such as antisemitism and Islamophobia reinforce social
injustice.
Economic and environmental justice overlap with social justice; all three concepts are considered
central to creating sustainable communities. Economic justice indicates fair access to economic
opportunities and resources, such as livable wages and affordable housing. Environmental justice works
to involve communities of color in shaping environmental policy decisions, as these communities
experience the impacts of environmental hazards and toxicity at disproportionately high rates. The
effects of social injustice are far-reaching and include poverty, segregation, prejudicial treatment,
violence, achievement and wage gaps, and poor health outcomes, all of which result from norms and
practices that direct socioeconomic benefits toward some groups while directing socioeconomic costs
toward others.
Social justice advocates distinguish between the concepts of equality and equity. Equality is achieved by
distributing the same resources to every person regardless of differences in need, identity, or status.
Equity, meanwhile, accounts for those differences and aims to reduce or remediate them, which may
mean distributing resources unevenly to serve different communities fairly. Equity focuses on the
desired outcome, which is understood as equality of access and opportunity. Affirmative action policies,
for example, aim to provide equity in education and employment to groups that have been oppressed
historically, such as people of color and women. Such policies attempt to correct for histories of
exclusion through actively expanding opportunities for inclusion.
Social oppression is the application of prejudicial hierarchies, or rankings of value, that reinforce a
dominant group’s retention of power, or control over one’s own reality and that of others, including
socioeconomic systems. According to social theorists, at the individual level, social oppression becomes
interpersonal oppression, revealing itself in the form of derogatory comments or discriminatory actions
such as calling security on a person of color engaged in common, everyday activities. Institutional and
systemic oppression occur when institutional or civil politics and practices create and bolster inequities
such as policies that unevenly distribute resources or erect barriers to participation. North Dakota’s
2018 requirement that voters show an ID card listing a physical street address demonstrates systemic
discrimination against Native Americans living on reservations, where street addresses are not
commonly used or included on official ID cards. Structural oppression takes a broader view of how
history, culture, and ideology influence unjust conditions. The school-to-prison pipeline, for example,
predominantly affects students of color who receive harsh punishments in school that result in them
becoming involved with the criminal justice system while still minors.
Main Ideas

Social justice is founded on the belief that communities that respect the dignity and rights of all
people can be achieved through shared responsibility for the distribution of socioeconomic
advantages and disadvantages.





Equality is achieved by distributing the same resources to every person regardless of differences
in need, identity, or status. Equity accounts for those differences and aims to reduce or
remediate them.
Oppression and privilege both result from prejudicial hierarchies, or rankings of value, that
reinforce a dominant group’s retention of social, political, or economic power.
Historians argue that contemporary social injustices can be traced to early US law and founding
documents that conferred inferior status to women, enslaved people, indigenous people, and
other marginalized classes.
Traditional methods for social justice organizing in the United States include nonviolent protest,
education and voter drives, media outreach, ballot initiatives, and litigation. Social media and
online organizing have emerged as powerful tools in the twenty-first century.
As online organizing has risen in prominence, proponents have become increasingly committed
to intersectional approaches to social justice, which take individuals’ coexisting identities into
account.
History and Oppression
Oppression has immediate and ongoing consequences for individuals and groups. Historical trauma
refers to the shared emotional and psychological effects of violence and dispossession, including the
destruction of culture, that accumulate over time within a community due to the exposure of multiple
generations to oppressive forces. Social historians argue that historical trauma can be seen in the United
States among indigenous peoples relegated to reservations, immigrants forced into relocation camps,
African Americans whose ancestors were kidnapped and enslaved, and families living with the immense
stressors of generational poverty. Sociologists and psychologists contend that the impacts of historical
trauma can be seen in inter …
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