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i need help in writing literature review 2000 World with minimum 10 to 15 references (Harvard style), all the need document and references my help will be attached.https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/eb0…https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09585…https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/…https://scialert.net/fulltextmobile/?doi=rjbm.2017…https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/08863…https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09585…
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Chapter 1: Introduction ………………………………………………………………………….. 1
1.1 Research Background……………………………………………………………………………………………. 3
1.2 Research Question ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
1.3 Research Objective ………………………………………………………………………4
1.4 Research Scope and Purpose ………………………………………………………………4
1.5 Research Significant ……….……………………………………………………………4
1.6 Organization of the Research ……………………………………………………………..5
Chapter 2: Literature Review ………………………………………………………………….. 6
Type chapter level (level 2) …………………………………………………………………………………………. 6
Type chapter title (level 3)………………………………………………………………………………………. 6
Chapter 3: Methodology ………………………………………………………………………….. 6
Chapter 4: Analyses …………………………………………………………………………………. 6
Chapter 5: Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………………. 6
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Research Background:
Human Capital is an essential asset to the Organization, and without them, the
organization cannot achieve its objective. Employee retention is now a primary
consideration of the human resource debate instead of the focus on the traditional
human resource role. HR professionals should engage more in addressing retention
issues. Retaining a quality employee is more efficient compared to recruiting and
training a replacement bearing similar qualities (Cloutier et al., 2015). Employees focus
on short-term benefits rather than organizational commitment. Compensation and
benefits are some of the leading factors in job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is a key
ingredient of employee retention efforts in any organization. Addressing job satisfaction
leads to clear benefits. Thus, focusing on employee retention contributes significantly in
terms of morale, productivity, performance, reduction in turnover, and quality work.
Factors like compensation and benefits significantly impact job satisfaction which
ultimately affects employee retention. Job satisfaction is an element that is crucial for
employee performance. Job satisfaction refers to the “agreeable emotional condition
that results from the assessment of one’s job as attaining or facilitating the
accomplishment of one’s job values” (Latifa et al., 2013). The element can also depend
on several factors like pay practices, increased productivity and low turnover.
Employee’s attitudes towards their jobs can be positive if they realize that their jobs
assist them in achieving their needs directly or indirectly. Job satisfaction represents the
difference between their expectations and the experience derived from the job. Job
satisfaction constitutes an individual’s feelings concerning the work environment, job,
payment, security, and so forth. It also contains other vital aspects such as job content
and job context. Job content facet includes compensation and work characteristics while
job context includes the work conditions, growth opportunities, policies. Thus, if an
employee is not happy with the compensation and benefits package, he/she will unlikely
be happy.
A critical issue facing organizations is on the retention of employees. The bottom line is
that compensation and benefits management for employee retention will make
companies retain the talented and experienced employees who will want to contribute to
an organization’s overall success. Compensation may not be the core factor in the
determination of whether an employee may stay, but it tips the balance. Besides, salary
and benefits make the compensation package, and it is possible to improve what a
company may offer to employees without committing more money. A better
compensation package is likely to retain more employees. Employees want better pay
for the job they do which may improve their self-esteem and also as a practical way of
living. Compensation also in terms of employee retention depends on the industry and
job. Some employees are motivated by rewards that a firm offers and may continue
working for a company in the long-term. Rewards are vital in retaining employees and
for job satisfaction. Rewards get offered according to the unique contributions that
employees make to a company. Compensation and benefit packages like stock options,
bonuses, and salaries are tools that help organizations retain employees. Failure to offer
such packages to employees may result in decreased job satisfaction and ultimately
Page 2 of 7
affect job retention (Terera and Ngirande, 2014). Bonuses and related programs
encourage employees to be goal oriented. It will be possible to achieve objectives if
sensible incentives get offered to employees. The benefits programs benefit employees
since they go beyond normal retirement and health programs. The non-monetary
benefits also play a part in job satisfaction. The rewards systems that are people-based
prove successful in increasing job satisfaction since they relate to personal needs. The
aspects considered here include time off, career development, discounts on company
products, and so forth. Business theories also support such factors in job satisfaction.
1.2 Research Question:
1: Do Benefit and Compensation have a positive and significant effect on Job
Satisfaction?
2: Does Job Satisfaction have a Positive and Significant impact on employee Retention
in the Manufacturing Sector in the eastern region, Saudi Arabia?
1.3 Research objective:
The primary Objective of This study is to measure the effect of Benefit and
Compensation in employee satisfaction. Also, to find the effect of job satisfaction on
Employee Retention. It will result in identifying the type of benefit and compensation
that make the employee more satisfied, also the outcome of employee retention such as
reduce the employee turnover rate, more motived employee, increase the productivity
and drive the organization to achieve it is goals.
1.4 Research Scope and Purpose:
The importance of this study is associated with the importance of the topic. Job
satisfaction and Employee retention have become a critical concern in the mind of
Human Resources Management for an organization. For that, we focus our study on this
topic to help them identify the relationship between Benefits and compensation and job
satisfaction in their organization. The study will measure the relationship between these
variables based on the response of employees in the manufacturing sector, through
Questioner.
1.5 Research Significant:
The findings of this study will help the Human Resource Management in the
manufacturing sector to explore the level of their employee job Satisfaction, evaluate
and develop the Benefits and compensation they offer.
Page 3 of 7
1.6 Organization of the Research:
The research consists of five chapters, as follows:
Chapter 1. This chapter includes the introduction, research question, objectives, scope
and purpose and the research significant.
Chapter 2. This chapter is a review of all literature used in this study books, journals,
articles and information collated from various websites.
Chapter 3. This chapter is composed of research methodology.
Chapter 4. This chapter explains the analysis and finding from data collected in Chapter
3
Chapter 5. This chapter answers the research questions of this study, Recommendation,
Limitation, and further research.
Page 4 of 7
Chapter 2: Literature Review
2.1 Job Satisfaction and dissatisfaction
2.2 Benefit and compensation
2.2.1 Monetary
2.2.2 Non- Monetary
2.3 Important to Job Satisfaction
2.3.1Impact on Company or Organization
2.3.2 Impact on Individual (employees)
Page 5 of 7
Relation to Theories
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory examined crucial contributors to job
satisfaction. The theory posits that human needs are in a five-level hierarchy. The theory
also postulates that essential needs should be met first, which are, the safety and
physiological needs before moving to more complex needs like esteem, and belonging
(Stoyanov, 2017). Besides, the lower level needs are the most basic while the complex
ones are at the top. The theory has a relationship with job satisfaction in workplaces
when employees get satisfied through the accomplishment of each step of the theory.
Such employees will likely get retained in an organization. Further, the levels of this
theory deal with the fulfillment of employee needs.
Impacts on Company
Job dissatisfaction has far-reaching effects, and it is an issue of concern for
companies. Unhappy employees may have low work performance in addition to the
negative influence they may spread around other coworkers A company’s competitive
advantage may get affected if they fail to retain top talent. A company having low job
satisfaction levels among its employees experiences high turnover rates. Turnover is
costly and affects an organization’s performance (Alshammari et al., 2016). Low job
satisfaction equals low productivity. Unhappy employees may not focus on their duties
and pay less attention to tasks. Other employees’ performance will also be affected if
a member feels dissatisfied thereby reducing productivity. Low morale spreads through
a workplace fast further affecting others when they feel the compensation and benefits
packages are not matching with their output. Desirable benefits and compensation
packages satisfy employees increasing employee loyalty and increased retention rates.
Page 6 of 7
References
Alshammari MA, Aqied BA, Mawali H AI, and Matalqa M (2016) What drives
employee’s involvement and turnover intentions: Empirical investigation of
factors influencing employee involvement and turnover intentions. Int J Manage
Market 6: 298-306.
Cloutier, O., Felusiak, L., Hill, C. and Pemberton-Jones, E.J., 2015. The Importance of
Developing Strategies for Employee Retention. Journal of Leadership,
Accountability & Ethics, 12(2).
Latif, M.S., Ahmad, M., Qasim, M., Mushtaq, M., Ferdoos, A. and Naeem, H., 2013.
Impact of employee’s job satisfaction on organizational performance. European
journal of business and management, 5(5), pp.166-171.Stoyanov, S. (2017). A
theory of human motivation. Macat Library.
Stoyanov, S., 2017. A theory of human motivation. Macat Library.
Terera, S.R. and Ngirande, H., 2014. The impact of rewards on job satisfaction and
employee retention. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(1), p.481.
Page 7 of 7
See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325959515
Impact of Compensation and Benefits on Job Satisfaction
Article in Research Journal of Business Management · June 2018
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Research Journal of Business Management
OPEN ACCESS
ISSN 1819-1932
DOI: 10.3923/rjbm.2017.80.90
Research Article
Impact of Compensation and Benefits on Job Satisfaction
1
Calvin Mzwenhlanhla Mabaso and 2Bongani Innocent Dlamini
1
Department of Software Studies, Vaal University of Technology, Private Bag X021, 1900 Vanderbijlpark, South Africa
Department of Human Resources Management, Durban University of Technology, 19 Aberfedly Road, 3209 Scottsville, South Africa
2
Abstract
Background and Objective: Human capital is the pivotal of organisational effectiveness and the most valuable asset available to an
organisation is its people. Retaining employees in their jobs is crucial for any organisational productivity and competitiveness. The
shortage of academic staff and inability for higher Education Institutions to attract and retain highly qualified talent is a critical
phenomenon in tertiary education. Satisfaction of academic staff will increase productivity and increase research outputs for the
universities. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of compensation, benefits on job satisfaction among academic staff in
higher education institutions in a South African context. There is paucity on research investigating specifically the relationship between
compensation, benefits and job satisfaction within the higher education institutions nationally. Materials and Methods: This study
employed the quantitative research method to investigate the influence of rewards on talent attraction and retention. An explanatory
hypothesis generating approach was employed and a survey design was used to collect data through a semi-structured questionnaire.
A sample of 279 academic staff, which was the total population of participants were selected for this study. Results: A positive and
significant effect of compensation on job satisfaction (p = 0.263). Moreover, there were no significant effect between benefits and job
satisfaction. Therefore, only compensation significantly predicted job satisfaction among academic staff. Conclusion: The practical
managerial implications that are attracting and retaining the new generation of lecturers into higher education institutions will require
substantially different skills and attractive employment offers than what the higher education institutions presently offer. Therefore, higher
education institutions must improve their compensation strategy in order to boost employeesʼ dedication that will enable commitment,
while efficiently deliver outstanding results. This will improve research outputs and improve skills within the country.
Key words: Compensate, job satisfaction, employee, relationship
Received: February 04, 2017
Accepted: March 03, 2017
Published: March 15, 2017
Citation: Calvin Mzwenhlanhla Mabaso and Bongani Innocent Dlamini, 2017. Impact of compensation and benefits on job satisfaction. Res. J. Business
Manage., 11: 80-90.
Corresponding Author: Calvin Mzwenhlanhla Mabaso, Department of Software Studies, Vaal University of Technology, Private Bag X021,
1900 Vanderbijlpark, South Africa Tel: +2716 950 6895
Copyright: © 2017 Calvin Mzwenhlanhla Mabaso and Bongani Innocent Dlamini. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative
commons attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are
credited.
Competing Interest: The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.
Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its supporting information files.
Res. J. Business Manage., 11 (2): 80-90, 2017
previous study seems to suggest that there is positive
INTRODUCTION
relationship between compensation and job satisfaction.
Several studies have reported a positive relationship between
In organization, employees are the key resources through
compensation and job9-11.
which all the other objectives are achieved. Academic staff are
the employees of the educational organizations and their job
Salisu et al.12 reported a significant positive correlation
satisfaction promotes teaching and learning. Employees will
between compensation and job satisfaction and concluded
demonstrate pleasurable positive attitudes when they are
the participants participating in their study regarded rewards
satisfied with their job1. Thus, high job satisfaction will
as one of the main contributors to their job satisfaction.
increase the productivity of an organization, in turn increasing
Nawab and Bhatti13 reported that employee rewards influence
the overall organizational performance. Compensation plays
job satisfaction in higher education institutions. Nawab and
an important role in determining an employee’s level of job
Bhatti13 also revealed that compensation as part of employee
satisfaction. Reward practices linked to job satisfaction have
rewards are gaining popularity day by day and higher
been applied differently by public and private enterprises.
education institutions should use compensation to satisfy and
Higher education is influential in the development of a
retain their highly qualified academic staff. In light of these
country, it does not only function as a provider of knowledge
studies, this study seeks to find the correlation between
but as a pertinent sector for the nationʼs grown and societal
compensation, benefits and job satisfaction.
well-being. The higher education institutions play a significant
role in development of skills, increased economy, therefore,
Research purpose and objectives: There is paucity on
high quality of staff is required. Management at modern-day
research investigating specifically the relationship between
academic institutions requires special endeavours to acquire
compensation, benefits and job satisfaction within the higher
and retain highly skilled employees to operate effectively in an
education institutions nationally. The main objective of the
extremely competitive environment. Obviously, the level of
study was to determine the impact of compensation, benefits
job satisfaction of these individual employees will impact
on job satisfaction among academic staff in higher education
significantly
institutions.
institutions in a South African context. World at Work Total
Compensation is a useful instrument in the hand of the
Rewards model was used in this study and the following study
management to contribute to the organisational effectiveness
questions were investigated:
on
performance
at
these
and can impact positively on the behaviour and productivity
of employees2.
However, compensation determines the

attraction and retention of employees to attain organisation
2,3
satisfaction?
4
objectives . Adeoye and Fields attested that compensation

is a major factor in attracting and retaining staff. To attract,

systems that satisfy employees. Netswera et al.5 stated that
working
conditions
and
What is the relationship between benefits and job
satisfaction?
retain and be profitable, organisations need innovative reward
unfavorable
What is the relationship between compensation and job
Does compensation and benefit impact on job
satisfaction?
unattractive
remuneration packages have in most industries led to skills
Compensation: Pay provided by an employer to its employees
migration.
Numerous researchers forecast that talent
for services rendered (i.e., time, effort and skill). This includes
shortages are going to increase well into the next decade,
both fixed and variable pay tied to performance levels14.
which will limit the ability of organisations to expand and will
Swanepoel et al.15 stated that compensation as financial
jeopardize their chances of survival as global competition
and non-financial extrinsic rewards provided by an employer
becomes more intense6,7.
for the time, skills and efforts made available by the employee
Compensation play a vital role in attracting, motivating
in fulfilling job
requirements
aimed at achieving
organisational objectives. According to Absar et al.16, reported
and retaining talented employees. According to Ibrahim
8
and Boerhaneoddin , compensation encourage effective
that employee compensation is one of the major functions of

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