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PSYCHOGERONTOLOGY COMPARISON REPORTAs you complete the final Psychogerontology Comparison Report, incorporate into it your instructor’s feedback from your Unit 7 draft. You should include previous assignments where you have extended the significance of your research and findings. This project clarifies what is lacking in the community you serve regarding optimal aging and also allows you to learn about exemplary models available for successful aging.The final project Psychogerontology Comparison Report consists of your Unit 3 Literature Review: Optimal Aging, the Unit 5 Local Older Adult Agency Search, and additional insights you gained after submitting your draft in Unit 7 and receiving instructor feedback. Your final version of the proposal should use the draft suggestions you received as appropriate. You are, however, responsible for the decisions and direction you take in your report.While writing the final report, use the Psychogerontology Comparison Report course project description and Unit 9 Psychogerontology Comparison Report Scoring Guide to direct your work. Use the Distinguished column on the scoring guide to ensure optimum points are earned.ASSIGNMENT DIRECTIONSIntegrate your Unit 3 assignment, Literature Review: Optimal Aging, into the report by completing the following:Include the following information:Analyze the primary and secondary age-related changes in psychological processes, cognitive functions, personality, and interpersonal relationships you discovered from the literature.Identify what preventative services exist that promote physical and mental health, cognitive functions, socialization, and quality of life. For example, Type 2 diabetes is associated with aging, but age does not cause Type 2 diabetes. Poor diet and lack of physical activity lead to Type 2 diabetes.Analyze what services address the impact of normal age-related physiological changes on the older adult’s psychosocial functioning.Analyze how changing societal concepts of aging on present and future cohorts of older adults impact optimal aging and services (including technology) that promote optimal aging.Analyze the major theories that link cognitive function and personality with the development and sustainment of interpersonal relationships.Integrate your Unit 5 assignment, Local Older Adult Agency Search, by including the following:Compare your findings of local area resources to what you found in your literature review about optimal aging and services that support optimal aging.Distinguish how the findings from your area differ or are similar to what you found in the literature.Differentiate community resources in your area that support successful aging.Analyze how physiological changes due to the aging process impact social interactions within families, organizations and communities.Analyze what could make a local resource better.In addition, integrate previous information you have studied into your Psychogerontology Comparison Report as follows:Analyze the socioeconomic status of the aging demographic and its impact on political action, public policy, and financial markets.COMPARISON REPORT FORMATYour final project report should contain the following structure and components.Title page (all scholarly work should have a title page).Text includes the following major sections:Introduction: Describe your topic and provide an overview of the paper’s focus.Objectives: Tell your reader what you hope to accomplish in this paper.Literature review: Incorporate information from the literature review and knowledge you have gained from course readings. How does your review help to accomplish your objectives?Comparison discussion: Compare what you found in the literature review to what you found in your local community.Conclusion: What did you find? What does this information accomplish?References: Includes all literature cited in the report.SUBMISSION REQUIREMENTSWritten Communication: Exemplify master’s level critical thinking and analysis in your paper. Do not just present a summary of the readings. Objectively evaluate and report on the findings of your research materials and the readings from the course.Write professionally by making points that are logical, substantive, and relevant based on the presented evidence, as well as free of errors that detract from the overall message.Clearly identify in your paper where you are addressing each grading criterion or part of the assignment.Create written communications that are respectful and appropriate to the purpose, context, and audience.Apply the conventions of the APA style guide and format in written communications.Generate communications that are clear, organized, concise, and use correct grammar and mechanics.Your paper should be double spaced using Times New Roman, 12 point. The paper must be a minimum of eighteen (18) full pages in length not including the title page, abstract, and references list.


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Running head: OPTIMAL AGING
Stacey Tekansik
Dr Brenda Harms
January 26, 2019
The most important thing to note the care of the geriatric population is to understand
the physiology and pathology of aging this is informed by the fact that the human body
undergoes a multiplicity of physiological changes each second. Also, the consideration of
social, psychological, cognitive, and economics of the aging is paramount to meet the needs
of the aging population. Sadly, most elderly people feel that they have no control over their
emergencies and fixed incomes. These factors more often than not lead to depression and
decreased efficiency. The elderly population is growing at a very fast rate as the years go by.
Notably, the prevalence of falls increases with age. It is evident from research that falls are
one of the leading causes of injuries among the elderly population in our society. In the year
2015 33,000 deaths were reported as a result of falls among the elderly. It is also estimated
that there are 28-35% falls each year amongst people within the age bracket of 65 years and
above. Falls are mainly associated with mobility as well as neurological and cardiovascular
causes. The several physical changes in the bodies of the elderly contribute greatly to the
negative influence on functional balance that interferes with the daily activities. The falls
normally lead to the escalation of costs for treatment (Phelan, 2016). .
Optimal aging refers to the capacity to function across many domains which includes
the physical, functional, cognitive, emotional, social, and spiritual to an individual’s
satisfaction despite one’s medical conditions. There are two theories that support aging that is
disengagement and activity theory. The disengagement theory talks about successful aging
being about withdrawal from activities and social interaction. The activity theory on the other
hand, proposes that for one to age successfully one should remain engaged in activities and
social interaction (Aldwin & Igarashi, 2015).
Also, there is a multi-dimensional approach which encompasses many factors which
include being free from disease, maintaining relationships, doing the things that make the
person happy, having financial stability, and having good coping skills. Other characteristics
include high degree of satisfaction which encompasses feeling that life is rewarding because
the goals have been met, has few regrets, has maintained a positive attitude about the future,
feels that life is stimulating and sets new goals, is able to relax and is able to relax and has
good habits. The next characteristic is having a harmonious integration of personality through
developed ego strength, unity, and maturity over the years, demonstrates self-actualization,
satisfaction, and authenticity. The next characteristic is the maintenance of a meaningful
social system that is involved with the caring network of family and friends. Also, personal
control over life which he makes his/her own decisions. In a number of ways the optimal
aging and successful aging share a number of similarities. However, the absence of sickness
can be attributed to both.
Most importantly, aging theories mostly describe aging in relation to behaviour,
personality, and attitude that change throughout the aging process. Therefore, the ego
development and the challenges they have faced by an individual at different stages that helps
in analyzing the personality, mental processes, and attitudes influence an individual’s
adaptation to the changes that are there in life. The ever evolving roles, relationships, and
status within the culture are also taken in to consideration. This has an impact on the society
and these calls for a concern for everyone. The increasing age calls for the increasing amount
of the issues that having a longer life brings.
The world health organization, International Federation on Aging, American
Association of Retired Persons, American Society on Aging, American Planning Association,
and National Association of Area Agencies on Aging have tried as much as possible to give
attention to the aging friendly communities and these reflects the importance of physical and
social environments for the healthy well-being at all ages and especially in the later life. The
identification of aging- friendly communities help in the individual processes. It is important
to note that the functional perspectives that conceive the aging processes that is observable in
the physical, mental, and social functioning as reflected in the terms of active aging. The
functional criteria includes the avoidance of disease and disability, maintenance of high
levels of physical and cognitive functioning as one ages, and the active engagement in social
and productive activities. Some of the most critical activities have to do with physical
activity which contributes to reduce the risk of a number of diseases that are attributed to a
number of cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, and osteoarthritis. Some cognitive
simulation include reading, practicing crossword puzzles, and playing board this has been
attributed to the reduction of incidence of cognitive diseases such as dementia. Others include
the nutritional interventions which are believed to extend the lifespan and reduce morbidity.
Cusack and Harbin (2017), argue that failure to thrive refers to the inability to
maintain growth and this is very common among elderly citizens. In an adult, the symptoms
include loss of appetite, loss of appetite, less active than normal, memory loss, trouble
thinking, and trouble with daily activities. One can become more susceptible because of
social isolation, increased need for care, low income, dementia, chronic diseases such as
cancer and diabetes, side effects from medicine and drug abuse. Failure to thrive can be
classified into to two that is medical and environmental. The condition is diagnosed by the
Anthropometric criteria whereby the physician does a mental exam, blood or urine tests,
hearing and vision tests, and imaging tests. There are several symptoms which include severe
respiratory infection, recurrent vomiting, and depression. One can prevent the disease from
progressing by observing proper eating diet, encouraging social activities, ensuring that the
person drinks liquids as directed, and also, clearing paths to ensure that the person will not
trip on objects.
It is important to note that falls are the leading cause of injury and death who are over
the age of 65 years. This is because as patients’ age they experience stiff joints, decreased
muscle strengths, and neurological feedback. Society (2015), state that it is estimated
that at least 24 percent of those who fall certain serious injuries and 6 percent sustain
fractures. When an elderly person experiences a fall they often fear and this will lead to them
reducing their activities which make them frail as they increase in age this, in turn, leads to
them being more susceptible to falls. Risk factors for falls include depression, dizziness,
previous falls, decreased strength, diabetes, and arthritis. Physicians diagnose falls by making
use of time up and go test. The symptoms include difficulty rising from a chair, dizziness
upon rising, increased sway, and path deviation. The falls can be lessened by modification of
home environment, an exercise aimed at improving balance, management of foot problems,
patient and caregiver education, vitamin D supplementation and cataract surgery for patients
with poor vision.
Temporal Arteritis
According to Sammel (2015), temporal arteritis is a vascular condition in which
the temporal arteritis that supplies blood to the head and brain become inflamed. The
condition is more common in people who are aged 50 years and above. The condition is
mainly caused by the body’s autoimmune response, excessive doses of antibiotics, and severe
infections. The symptoms of the condition include fatigue, loss of appetite, sudden loss of
sight on one eye, unintentional weight loss, throbbing headache in the temples, and
tenderness in the scalp and temple areas. In order to diagnose the condition, the doctor
conducts a physical exam, blood test, biopsy, and ultrasound. Since the condition cannot be
cured the treatment is meant to minimize tissue damage that occurs due to inadequate blood
All the articles reviewed were pointing towards education by the nurses being one of
the major interventions in reducing the falls among the elderly population. In the first article
the authors recommended that their colleagues collect data and report on the same so that
they can be able to record the unintended outcomes as this will be able to guide the nurses on
which education programs to focus on (Manojlovich, Leo, & Lauseng, 2016). The second
article on the other hand, indicates that there should be increased messaging informing the
public that falls are preventable and should come from the staff and more specifically the
nurses providing care to this particular population (Phelan, Aerts, Dowler, Eckstrom, &
Casey, 2016). The third article on the other hand, recommends systematic review of articles
as this will enable the care givers improve on the quality of care including education as a way
of preventing the falls (Lannering, Bravell, &Johansson, 2017). Additionally, in the fourth
article the authors recommend that the elderly citizens participate in training as it will greatly
increase their flexibility, balance, and lumbar strength (Emilio, Hita, Jimenez, Lattore, &
Martinez, 2014). Finally, the last article recommend the use of low cost evidence based
approaches in the nursing homes which include education on how to prevent the falls as this
will go a long way in helping to reduce the falls hence helping save costs (Teresi et al., 2013).
The main overall recommendation is that the nurses should be able to take individual
responsibility towards ensuring that the elderly population is well educated on the causes of
the falls and how they can be prevented.
Floor Nurses the strategy used will be training programs mainly focusing on care to provide
to the patients.
Nurse Managers- the strategy used is training them on the current interventions so that they
can pass over the message to their juniors.
Nurse Administrators- train on how to effectively monitor the care being given to the elderly
Their main roles of the stakeholders will be ensuring that there is adequate patient
assessment; proper communication between them to ensure that there is proper coordination,
that the hospital has proper protocols for safety practices, there is proper leadership in the
facilities, and adequate orientation of the staff working in the health facilities.
The main barrier in the intervention would be the attitude by the stakeholders towards
the research this would bring a lot of problems when it comes to the implementation of the
interventions. The other barrier would be lack of proper education and training on the
intervention this would cause a major problem. This would cause a big problem since people
would lack adequate information on how to intervene therefore; it is advisable that there is
proper training and education.
Strategies to Overcome Barriers
The two main strategies to overcome the above barriers is adequate communication
and planning to counter both issues identified. For instance, to counter the issue of the
attitude it is important that the stakeholders are brought on board by adequately being
communicated to about the research that is being conducted and how it will be implemented.
Secondly, it is important that in the annual plans education and training are slotted in so that
they can run through without any interruption.
Education by the nurses to the patients should result in reduction in the number of
falls by the elderly population. This would be measured by data reports obtained in various
hospitals indicating how many elderly patients have been treated for injuries occasioned by
falls after the education has been carried out by the nurses as compared to the number of
cases that were reported before the nurses started educating the patients. Research activities
involve significant time and resource investment by stakeholders, researchers, and
participants (Curtis, Fry, Shaban & Considine, 2017). This, dissemination of findings is an
important step in evidence-based research. For this EBP research, the preferred dissemination
pathways are conferences, peer-reviewed journals, professional newsletters, institutional
newsletters and materials for general audience consumption. The first point of dissemination
should be at the institution or hospital where the intervention was carried out to share
outcomes with colleagues, peers and hospital management and stakeholders. This can be
done using in-house newsletters, memos, news alerts on notice boards and online networking
platforms of the institution. Disseminating the findings to professionals is also critical to open
the space for peer review, extend the research to other settings and facilitate dialogue. This
can be done through educational sessions, presenting in conferences, publishing in journals
and professional publications (Curtis et al., 2017). News releases and other forms of media
engagement can be used to disseminate the research findings to the public to ensure that
future and current patients are aware. Lastly, holding presentations, making summaries that
highlight the costs and benefits of the intervention and educational sessions with
policymakers can help disseminate the research findings to this critical group. When
disseminating research findings, it is of importance that the findings are translated or
summarized in a way that the particular audience will understand. Thus, there needs to be a
plan on how to disseminate the findings, which audiences, where, when and how to ensure
not only sharing of research findings but also, spur the spirit of inquiry, facilitate
implementation of the intervention in other settings and peer-review and critique.
Evidence Based Practice is an important component of the research on aging.
Readmission and mortality rates are vital statistics in the elderly citizen management.
Readmission is correlated with mortality rates and thus, the need to reduce the likelihood that
an elderly citizen will be readmitted. Interventions to achieve this reduction include nurse-led
patient monitoring and education. The target population is patients with a definitive diagnosis
of different conditions and the outcomes of interest are readmission and mortality rates. The
time components are at 30 days and six months. If implemented the findings are to be
disseminated to the public, policymakers, peers, and colleagues as well as the institution
through conferences, journals, educational seminars, newsletters, policy briefs, and news
Aldwin, C. M., & Igarashi, H. (2015). Successful, optimal, and resilient aging: A
psychosocial perspective.
Feltner, C., Jones, C. D., Cené, C. W., Zheng, Z. J., Sueta, C. A., Coker-Schwimmer, E. J., …
& Jonas, D. E. (2014). Transitional care interventions to prevent readmissions for
persons with heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of internal
medicine, 160(11), 774-784.
Lannering, C., Ernsth Bravell, M., & Johansson, L. (2017). Prevention of falls, malnutrition
and pressure ulcers among older persons–nursing staff’s experiences of a structured
preventive care process. Health & social care in the community, 25(3), 10111020.
Manojlovich, M., Lee, S., & Lauseng, D. (2016). A systematic review of the unintended
consequences of clinical interventions to reduce adverse outcomes. Journal of patient
safety, 12(4), 173-179.
More elderly people dying as the crisis deepens (2018, April 7), The Guardian. Retrieved
Older adults with a ‘fall prevention plan’ less likely to end up in hospital (2018, September
24), MedicalXpress. Retrieved from
Phelan, E. A., Aerts, S., Dowler, D., Eckstrom, E., & Casey, C. M. (2016). Adoption of
evidence-based fall prevention practices in primary care for older adults with a history
of falls. Frontiers in public health, 4, 190.
Sharma, A., Lavie, C. J., Borer, J. S., Vallakati, A., Goel, S., Lopez-Jimenez, F., … & Lazar,
J. M. (2015). Meta-analysis of the relation of body mass index to all-cause and
cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization in patients with chronic heart failure. The
American journal of cardiology, 115(10), 1428-1434.
Vedel, I., & Khanassov, V. (2015). Transitional care for patients with congestive heart
failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Annals of Family Medicine, 13(6),
Optimal Aging
Stacey Tekansik
Capella University
Optimal Aging
As people age, their functionality decreases, for example, they can’t walk long distances,
they find it hard to do menial house tasks such as folding clothes among others. Optimal aging
ensures that an individual maintains their functionality in all areas, i.e., physical, spiritual,
emotional, social, and cognitive despite their age. Optimal aging does not mean that the individual
doesn’t get sick, but it means that even with the sickness, they find a way to adapt. There are
medical conditions that accompany old age because their immune is not strong enough to fight off
diseases. Some individuals easily adapt to their conditions while others don’t. The adaptation is
what optimal aging is all about. There are programs and organizations whose main role is to help
individuals to maintain their functionality despite their age. This paper will focus on these
programs, services, and organizations whose concern for the older generation is helping improve
the quality of life.
Nascentia Health
Optimal aging programs aim at helping old individuals stay in their homes for as long as
they need. In nursing homes, they don’t have as much freedom as they do in their own homes. For
example, they can’t wake up in the morning and go out without the company of an individual but
when at home, they can wake up and decide to visit a friend. In the United States, there are plenty
of healthcare organizations that deal with optimal aging. One such organization is Nascentia
Health. The organization mainly deals with individuals at risk of falling. As people age, their bones
and muscles get weak which makes it easy for them to fall. The most dangerous part of falling is
not that they may break a few bones but that they may fall on a sharp object and hurt themselves.
They can also hit their head on a blunt object and sustain a head injury. The organization believes
that the best solution for falls and fall-related injury is putting in place, preventative measures.
The organization outlines some of the characteristics of an individual who should seek their
services. These individuals should have experienced unsteadiness when walking or doing any
physical activity, they should have lost a lot of weight unintentionally, they are easily exhausted,
and experience body weakness, meaning that they find it hard to lift items they initially lifted
easily. These symptoms make it hard for the individual to do any task. For example, they have to
take a taxi since they can’t walk for long distances. General body weak …
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